143 research outputs found

    Review of the South American whip scorpions (Thelyphonida: Arachnida)

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    The literature concerning South American thelyphonids presently supports recognition of about ten recent species of thelyphonids representing two genera. Comparative and diagnostic features deduced from this literature and from study of some of these species are provided herein together with a discussion of the relevant morphological characters. A general review of the biology, distribution and diversity of the Thelyphonida is also provided. The genus Amauromastigon is synonymized with Mastigoproctus on subjective grounds. At least one species is known by fossils from the Lower Cretaceous of Brazil and is discussed relative to its possible relationships to Recent American taxa

    African whip scorpion, Etienneus africanus (Hentschel, 1899) (Thelyphonida, Thelyphonidae).

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    16 p. : ill. (some col.), 1 map ; 26 cm. "August 28, 2009." Includes bibliographical references (p. 14-16).An illustrated redescription of the monotypic African whip scorpion, Etienneus africanus (Hentschel, 1899), is provided based on examination of material newly collected in Guinea-Bissau and Senegal, as well as material from the Gambia, Guinea and Senegal studied by previous workers. The species is reported for the first time from Guinea-Bissau. Several character systems are documented in this species for the first time, new characters that appear to be autapomorphic are described, and notes on its natural history provided. The phylogenetic position of E. africanus is discussed, supporting the opinion that it is a Gondwana relict, most closely related to the Neotropical hypoctonine genera, Thelyphonellus Pocock, 1894 and Ravilops Viquez and Armas, 2005

    A FOSSIL WHIP-SCORPION (ARACHNIDA: THELYPHONIDA) FROM THE UPPER CARBONIFEROUS OF THE CARNIC ALPS (FRIULI, NE ITALY)

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    A new and well-preserved fossil whip scorpion (Arachnida: Uropygi: Thelyphonida) is described from the Late Carboniferous of the Carnic Alps, Friuli, Italy. It is referred to Parageralinura marsiglioi n. sp. The new specimen is the first Carboniferous arachnid to be described from mainland Italy and is possibly the youngest Palaeozoic thelyphonid

    Arachnida at "Reserva Ducke", Central Amazonia/Brazil

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    The class Arachnida contains 11 recent orders: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpiones, Ricinulei, Schizomida, Scorpiones, Solifugae and Uropygi (Thelyphonida). In total, >570 families, >9165 genera and >93455 species are known world-wide. More than 136 families, >482 genera and >1547 described species occur in Amazonia. Data show, that almost one-fourth of the families presently known in the Arachnida and about 2% of the worlds described species are represented in Amazonia. In the forest reserve 'Reserva Ducke' near Manaus, the Acari-Oribatida represent 45 families, 72 genera and 35 described species, the Aranea 30 families, 143 genera and 295 described species, the Opiliones 5 families, 7 genera and 8 decribed species, the Scorpiones 2 families, 4 genera and 5 described species, the Pseudoscorpiones 6 families, 11 genera, and 15 described species, the Schizomida, 1 family, 2 genera and 2 described species, and the Amblypygi, Palpigradi, Solifugae and Uropygi (Thelyphonida) one species each. Most names are liste

    A fossil whip-scorpion (Arachnida: Thelyphonida) from the Upper Carboniferous of the Carnic Alps (Friuli, NE Italy)

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    A new and well-preserved fossil whip scorpion (Arachnida: Uropygi: Thelyphonida) is described from the Late Carboniferous of the Carnic Alps, Friuli, Italy. It is referred to Parageralinura marsiglioi n. sp. The new specimen is the first Carboniferous arachnid to be described from mainland Italy and is possibly the youngest Palaeozoic thelyphonid

    Microscopic anatomy of Eukoenenia spelaea (Palpigradi)

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    Eukoenenia spelaea is a troglobiont palpigrade found in caves of the European Alps. These small animals have a maximum body length of 1.5 mm without the characteristic terminal flagellum. They lack eyes and breathing organs but have unique sensory organs. Detailed morphological studies of Palpigradi date back the late 19th and early 20th century. The placement of Palpigradi within a morphology based phylogeny of Euchelicerata is difficult. Data on microscopic anatomy and comparative morphology is incomplete, they show numerous plesiomorphic features, and they are so small, resulting in reduction, simplification and loss of organ systems. In this study, I analyze the microscopic anatomy of Eukoenenia spelaea, present evidence that progenesis is the developmental mechanism resulting in a paedomorphic adult morphology and miniaturized size, and discuss the results in a phylogenetic framework. I used serial sectioning for light microscopy as well as transmission and scanning electron microscopy to describe the microscopic anatomy. The morphological analysis comprised all organs and external structures. Several new morphological features were described which are unique for Eukoenenia spelaea. For other structures I provide evidence that allow for new interpretations in the light of evolutionary morphology. (1) The prosoma is dorsally divided into two prosomal shields, the pro- and metapeltidium. (2) The ventral plate is probably an osmoregulatory organ. (3) The prosternum consists of the fused sternites of segments 2–4. (4) The frontal organ and trichobothria were found to have a morphology which is unique within euchelicerates. (5) The esophagus is enveloped by the supraesophageal ganglion associated with the chelicerae. (6) The heart lacks ostia, a pericard, a nerve, and well developed musculature. (7) The rostrosoma is not associated with chelicerae or pedipalps. (8) The midgut is simple and sac-like, a hindgut is missing. (9) The coxal gland (tubule and glandular section) has no lumen. (10) Females have an unpaired ovary with only few large eggs. (11) The aflagellate sperm has a prominent vacuole. The morphological results were fed into a phylogenetic analysis. Several autapomorphic characters were recognized to characterize Palpigradi (i.e. the dorsal division of the prosoma into pro- and metapeltidium, the frontal organ, and the rostrosoma with no association with chelicerae or pedipalps). A phylogenetic sister group relationship was found with Acaromorpha with which they share the morphology of the leg musculature and joints, the opening of the coxal organ on leg 1, the lack of a postcerebral suction pump, a myogenic heart, and vacuolated sperm. This phylogenetic position suggests that the common ancestor of Palpigradi and Acaromorpha was already small. The small body size of Eukoenenia spelaea (and probably all Palpigradi) resulted in reduction or even loss of structures like musculature, and the complete lack of breathing organs and Malpighian tubules. Some organs showed a typical paedomorphotic morphology which was interpreted as the result of progenetic development, e.g. the microscopic anatomy of the heart, the brain, and the midgut. These findings suggest that E. spelaea is miniaturized

    In Memoriam Rolando Teruel Ochoa (1974 – 2023)

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    This is an obituary of Rolando Teruel Ochoa (1974–2023), a great Cuban arachnologist. A full list of his works is appended, as well as a list of scorpions and other arachnids described by Rolando

    Stenochrus portoricensis new to the Czech Republic (Schizomida, Hubbardiidae)

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    A schizomid, Stenochrus portoricensis Chamberlin, 1922 (family Hubbardiidae), was collected in a greenhouse in Brno. This is the first discovery of a schizomid from the Czech Republic

    Microscopic anatomy of Eukoenenia spelaea (Palpigradi)

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    Eukoenenia spelaea is a troglobiont palpigrade found in caves of the European Alps. These small animals have a maximum body length of 1.5 mm without the characteristic terminal flagellum. They lack eyes and breathing organs but have unique sensory organs. Detailed morphological studies of Palpigradi date back the late 19th and early 20th century. The placement of Palpigradi within a morphology based phylogeny of Euchelicerata is difficult. Data on microscopic anatomy and comparative morphology is incomplete, they show numerous plesiomorphic features, and they are so small, resulting in reduction, simplification and loss of organ systems. In this study, I analyze the microscopic anatomy of Eukoenenia spelaea, present evidence that progenesis is the developmental mechanism resulting in a paedomorphic adult morphology and miniaturized size, and discuss the results in a phylogenetic framework. I used serial sectioning for light microscopy as well as transmission and scanning electron microscopy to describe the microscopic anatomy. The morphological analysis comprised all organs and external structures. Several new morphological features were described which are unique for Eukoenenia spelaea. For other structures I provide evidence that allow for new interpretations in the light of evolutionary morphology. (1) The prosoma is dorsally divided into two prosomal shields, the pro- and metapeltidium. (2) The ventral plate is probably an osmoregulatory organ. (3) The prosternum consists of the fused sternites of segments 2–4. (4) The frontal organ and trichobothria were found to have a morphology which is unique within euchelicerates. (5) The esophagus is enveloped by the supraesophageal ganglion associated with the chelicerae. (6) The heart lacks ostia, a pericard, a nerve, and well developed musculature. (7) The rostrosoma is not associated with chelicerae or pedipalps. (8) The midgut is simple and sac-like, a hindgut is missing. (9) The coxal gland (tubule and glandular section) has no lumen. (10) Females have an unpaired ovary with only few large eggs. (11) The aflagellate sperm has a prominent vacuole. The morphological results were fed into a phylogenetic analysis. Several autapomorphic characters were recognized to characterize Palpigradi (i.e. the dorsal division of the prosoma into pro- and metapeltidium, the frontal organ, and the rostrosoma with no association with chelicerae or pedipalps). A phylogenetic sister group relationship was found with Acaromorpha with which they share the morphology of the leg musculature and joints, the opening of the coxal organ on leg 1, the lack of a postcerebral suction pump, a myogenic heart, and vacuolated sperm. This phylogenetic position suggests that the common ancestor of Palpigradi and Acaromorpha was already small. The small body size of Eukoenenia spelaea (and probably all Palpigradi) resulted in reduction or even loss of structures like musculature, and the complete lack of breathing organs and Malpighian tubules. Some organs showed a typical paedomorphotic morphology which was interpreted as the result of progenetic development, e.g. the microscopic anatomy of the heart, the brain, and the midgut. These findings suggest that E. spelaea is miniaturized
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