69,832 research outputs found

    Differential Interleukin-2 Transcription Kinetics Render Mouse but Not Human T Cells Vulnerable to Splicing Inhibition Early after Activation

    Get PDF
    T cells are nodal players in the adaptive immune response against pathogens and malignant cells. Alternative splicing plays a crucial role in T cell activation, which is analyzed mainly at later time points upon stimulation. Here we have discovered a 2-h time window early after stimulation where optimal splicing efficiency or, more generally, gene expression efficiency is crucial for successful T cell activation. Reducing the splicing efficiency at 4 to 6 h poststimulation significantly impaired murine T cell activation, which was dependent on the expression dynamics of the Egr1-Nab2-interleukin-2 (IL-2) pathway. This time window overlaps the time of peak IL-2 de novo transcription, which, we suggest, represents a permissive time window in which decreased splicing (or transcription) efficiency reduces mature IL-2 production, thereby hampering murine T cell activation. Notably, the distinct expression kinetics of the Egr1-Nab2-IL-2 pathway between mouse and human render human T cells refractory to this vulnerability. We propose that the rational temporal modulation of splicing or transcription during peak de novo expression of key effectors can be used to fine-tune stimulation-dependent biological outcomes. Our data also show that critical consideration is required when extrapolating mouse data to the human system in basic and translational research

    Fibronectin in immune responses in organ transplant recipients.

    Get PDF
    The immune response to an organ allograft involves perpetuation of T cell infiltration and activation. Advances in understanding the mechanisms of T cell activation have placed particular emphasis on the interactions between the T-cell receptor and antigen presenting cells, with little reference to the fact that in vivo activation occurs in the physical context of extracellular matrix proteins (ECM). Indeed, the possibility that ECM proteins may have a determining role in lymphocyte adhesion and tissue localization and function is now becoming more appreciated in view of growing evidence indicating that integrins and other T cell antigens bind ECM components, with some of these components exerting synergistic effects on T-cell activation. This review focuses on the importance of interactions between lymphocytes and fibronectin, a prominent ECM component, for cell migration and function in organ allograft recipients. It explores novel therapeutic approaches based on the assumption that fibronectin represents an active element in the process of T cell activation in the immune cascade triggered by organ transplantation

    Stomatin-like Protein 2 Links Mitochondria to T-Cell Receptor Signalosomes at the Immunological Synapse and Enhances T-Cell Activation

    Get PDF
    T cell activation through the antigen receptor (TCR) requires sustained signalling from microclusters in the peripheral region of the immunological synapse (IS). The bioenergetics of such prolonged signaling have been linked to the redistribution of mitochondria to the IS. Here, we report that stomatin-like protein-2 (SLP-2) plays an important role in this process by bridging polarized mitochondria to these signaling TCR microclusters or signalosomes in the IS in a polymerized actin-dependent manner. In this way, SLP-2 helps to sustain TCR-dependent signalling and enhances T cell activation

    Controversies concerning thymus-derived regulatory T cells: fundamental issues and a new perspective

    Get PDF
    Thymus-derived regulatory T cells (Tregs) are considered to be a distinct T-cell lineage that is genetically programmed and specialised for immunosuppression. This perspective is based on the key evidence that CD25(+) Tregs emigrate to neonatal spleen a few days later than other T cells and that thymectomy of 3-day-old mice depletes Tregs only, causing autoimmune diseases. Although widely believed, the evidence has never been reproduced as originally reported, and some studies indicate that Tregs exist in neonates. Thus we examine the consequences of the controversial evidence, revisit the fundamental issues of Tregs and thereby reveal the overlooked relationship of T-cell activation and Foxp3-mediated control of the T-cell system. Here we provide a new model of Tregs and Foxp3, a feedback control perspective, which views Tregs as a component of the system that controls T-cell activation, rather than as a distinct genetically programmed lineage. This perspective provides new insights into the roles of self-reactivity, T cell–antigen-presenting cell interaction and T-cell activation in Foxp3-mediated immune regulation

    Cortisol patterns are associated with T cell activation in HIV.

    Get PDF
    ObjectiveThe level of T cell activation in untreated HIV disease is strongly and independently associated with risk of immunologic and clinical progression. The factors that influence the level of activation, however, are not fully defined. Since endogenous glucocorticoids are important in regulating inflammation, we sought to determine whether less optimal diurnal cortisol patterns are associated with greater T cell activation.MethodsWe studied 128 HIV-infected adults who were not on treatment and had a CD4(+) T cell count above 250 cells/µl. We assessed T cell activation by CD38 expression using flow cytometry, and diurnal cortisol was assessed with salivary measurements.ResultsLower waking cortisol levels correlated with greater T cell immune activation, measured by CD38 mean fluorescent intensity, on CD4(+) T cells (r = -0.26, p = 0.006). Participants with lower waking cortisol also showed a trend toward greater activation on CD8(+) T cells (r = -0.17, p = 0.08). A greater diurnal decline in cortisol, usually considered a healthy pattern, correlated with less CD4(+) (r = 0.24, p = 0.018) and CD8(+) (r = 0.24, p = 0.017) activation.ConclusionsThese data suggest that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis contributes to the regulation of T cell activation in HIV. This may represent an important pathway through which psychological states and the HPA axis influence progression of HIV

    CD98 and T Cell Activation

    Get PDF
    Upon their recognition of antigens presented by the MHC, T cell proliferation is vital for clonal expansion and the acquisition of effector functions, which are essential for mounting adaptive immune responses. The CD98 heavy chain (CD98hc, Slc3a2) plays a crucial role in the proliferation of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, although it is unclear if CD98hc directly regulates the T cell effector functions that are not linked with T cell proliferation in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that CD98hc is required for both CD4+ T cell proliferation and Th1 functional differentiation. T cell-specific deletion of CD98hc did not affect T cell development in the thymus. CD98hc-deficient CD4+ T cells proliferated in vivo more slowly as compared with control T cells. C57BL/6 mice lacking CD98hc in their CD4+ T cells could not control Leishmania major infections due to lowered IFN-γ production, even with massive CD4+ T cell proliferation. CD98hc-deficient CD4+ T cells exhibited lower IFN-γ production compared with wild-type T cells, even when comparing IFN-γ expression in cells that underwent the same number of cell divisions. Therefore, these data indicate that CD98hc is required for CD4+ T cell expansion and functional Th1 differentiation in vivo, and suggest that CD98hc might be a good target for treating Th1-mediated immune disorders

    T-Cell activation: a queuing theory analysis at low agonist density

    Get PDF
    We analyze a simple linear triggering model of the T-cell receptor (TCR) within the framework of queuing theory, in which TCRs enter the queue upon full activation and exit by downregulation. We fit our model to four experimentally characterized threshold activation criteria and analyze their specificity and sensitivity: the initial calcium spike, cytotoxicity, immunological synapse formation, and cytokine secretion. Specificity characteristics improve as the time window for detection increases, saturating for time periods on the timescale of downregulation; thus, the calcium spike (30 s) has low specificity but a sensitivity to single-peptide MHC ligands, while the cytokine threshold (1 h) can distinguish ligands with a 30% variation in the complex lifetime. However, a robustness analysis shows that these properties are degraded when the queue parameters are subject to variation—for example, under stochasticity in the ligand number in the cell-cell interface and population variation in the cellular threshold. A time integration of the queue over a period of hours is shown to be able to control parameter noise efficiently for realistic parameter values when integrated over sufficiently long time periods (hours), the discrimination characteristics being determined by the TCR signal cascade kinetics (a kinetic proofreading scheme). Therefore, through a combination of thresholds and signal integration, a T cell can be responsive to low ligand density and specific to agonist quality. We suggest that multiple threshold mechanisms are employed to establish the conditions for efficient signal integration, i.e., coordinate the formation of a stable contact interface
    corecore