5,389 research outputs found

    The impact of social and temporal job demands and resources on emotional exhaustion and turnover intention among flight attendants

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    Based on a survey among flight attendants from a DACH-country-based airline, this study examines the effects and relative importance of social and temporal determinants of emotional exhaustion and turnover intention. Results suggest that scheduling satisfaction is the most influential predictor of both emotional exhaustion and turnover intention, followed by time pressure and surface acting for emotional Exhaustion and surface acting and organizational support for turnover intention. From a practical standpoint, these results thus suggest that the most important predictors of emotional exhaustion and turnover intention can be shaped and influenced quite well by management

    Does Gender Moderate the Relationship Between Surface Acting and Burnout?

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    Burnout occurs when the workplace has chronic emotional and interpersonal stressors that trigger emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and feelings of incompetence. There is a gap in burnout literature on how experiences, systemic expectations, and coping behaviors differ between females and males. Previous research suggests that comparable behaviors in male and female employees elicit different reactions from their peers. As a result, attributes such as assertiveness, generally perceived as powerful for males, are seen as abrasive for females. This mindset creates an environment where females act in a way that society expects them to remain credible. Surface acting involves the regulation of one’s felt emotions which can be connected to how people believe they are expected to behave and is positively correlated to stress and burnout. This exploratory study examined the relationship among surface acting, burnout, and gender from 163 survey responses from working adults on Amazon Mechanical Turk. The hypothesis is that the relationship between surface acting and burnout will be moderated by gender, such that the positive relationship between surface acting and burnout will be stronger for females than males. The results did indicate that gender does serve as a moderator in the relationship between surface acting and burnout. Moreover, the findings also indicate that the positive relationship between surface acting and burnout is stronger for females. Practical implications of these findings are discussed for the interpretation of gender impact on surface acting and burnout. Future research must analyze how meeting type, job industry, and domestic responsibilities influence the relationship between surface acting and burnout, dependent on gender

    Faking it for the higher-ups: Status and surface acting in workplace meetings

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    Recent evidence suggests that surface acting occurs in workplace meetings. Even in light of these findings, it remains unknown why employees would choose to surface act in meetings with their colleagues and supervisors, and how this form of emotion regulation affects employees in the short-term. A sample of working adults were asked to report their levels of surface acting during multiple workplace meetings. Results indicate that employees engage in surface acting during meetings, and that their surface acting is positively related to the presence of higher-status attendees in these meetings. Additionally, surface acting during meetings is negatively related to perceptions of both meeting psychological safety and meeting effectiveness. We also highlight the important role of one’s job level as a moderating condition when examining the relationship between surface acting and perceived meeting effectiveness. Our results suggest that individuals who are higher-up in an organization’s hierarchy may perceive meetings as less effective when they surface act when compared to individuals who are in lower levels of the organization

    The Impact of Emotional Labor on Burnout Over Time : How Emotional Work Impacts Well-Being at Work

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    Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI)Burnout is the emotional, mental, and physical strain associated with prolonged work stress (Maslach, Jackson, & Leiter, 1986). Although this is a problem in many professions, mental health providers are at a heightened risk of burnout (Salyers et al., 2015). One of the reasons for this increase in burnout may be the demands put on mental health workers to manage their own emotions while dealing with the intense emotional and mental health situations of their clients. Emotional labor, or the management of emotions at work, is conceptualized as two different emotion regulation strategies: surface acting and deep acting (Grandey, 2000). Surface acting, or faking emotions, has been associated with significant mental health and job-related problems, including burnout in populations such as call center employees and service workers. The psychological impact of deep acting, or internally attempting to change your emotions, is less clear, and may actually be associated with positive outcomes (Hülsheger & Schewe, 2011). However, little work has looked at the impact of emotional labor on mental health providers. The current study aims to examine how surface acting and deep acting are related to burnout over time in mental health providers. The proposed study is secondary analysis from a Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) funded trial “The impact of burnout on patient-centered care: A comparative effectiveness trial in mental health (Salyers et al., 2018). 193 Clinicians reported burnout symptoms and frequency of employing emotional labor strategies at baseline, with 127 clinicians completing all four time-points: baseline, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. Data were analyzed using multiple regression analyses and cross-lagged panels to examine the impact of surface acting and deep acting on burnout over the course of 12 months. Surface acting was significantly associated with all three dimensions of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment) cross-sectionally. Using cross-lagged panel models, depersonalization at baseline significantly predicted surface acting three and six months later. Surface acting and personal accomplishment had a bidirectional relationship: increased surface acting at baseline was associated with personal accomplishment at three months and decreased personal accomplishment at baseline and was associated with increased surface acting at three and six months. Deep acting moderated the relationship between surface acting and personal accomplishment at baseline, but not longitudinally. The current study is the first study that has examined the relationship between surface acting and burnout in community mental health professionals. While surface acting may not result in burnout three months later for dimensions other than personal accomplishment, two dimensions of burnout (depersonalization and decreased personal accomplishment) were associated with higher levels of surface acting three and six months later. This suggests that surface acting may have consequences for feelings of accomplishment at work, but more so, may be used a coping mechanism in reaction to some aspects of burnout

    Less acting, more doing: How surface acting relates to perceived meeting effectiveness and other employee outcomes

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    This study adds to the growing body of research on work meetings and extends the emotional labour literature beyond a service context by examining the relationship between surface acting during meetings and perceived meeting effectiveness. Additionally, the relationships of surface acting during meetings and perceived meeting effectiveness with time-lagged reports of intention to quit and emotional exhaustion 3 months later were investigated. Structural equation modelling of data from 178 working adults revealed negative relationships between surface acting and perceptions of meeting effectiveness. Perceived meeting effectiveness partially mediated the relationship between surface acting and both intention to quit and emotional exhaustion 3 months later. These findings expand both the limited research on perceived meeting effectiveness and the surface acting nomological network to include a consideration that expressing inauthentic emotions in meetings (surface acting) may relate to the perceived effectiveness of the meeting. As well, both surface acting during meetings and perceived meeting effectiveness may relate to how emotionally exhausted employees feel and their intentions to seek other employment. Given the cost and pervasiveness of meetings in daily organizational life and their potential effects on the well-being of employees, understanding how to make meetings effective is paramount – particularly if researchers and practitioners want to better understand how perceived meeting effectiveness may be related to various employee outcomes

    Emotional labour and employee well-being in the hospitality industry

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    Includes bibliographical references.This study examines the nature of emotional labour and its relationship with employee well-being using a sample of South African hospitality employees (N =136). Exploratory factor analysis differentiated between three distinct emotional labour dimensions: surface acting, deep acting, and naturally felt expression. Controlling for the influence of positive affectivity and general self-efficacy, hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that surface acting predicted emotional exhaustion, and deep acting predicted job satisfaction. Work-to-life conflict partially mediated the relationship between surface acting and emotional exhaustion, and fully mediated the relationship between surface acting and job satisfaction. Managerial implications and suggestions for research are discusse

    Emotion regulation and worker well-being: Does who you act with matter?

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    The relationships of nurses’ emotion regulation directed at different targets at work and worker well-being were investigated in the current study. I looked at surface acting and deep acting (i.e., suppressing felt emotions and faking unfelt emotions, or actually attempting to feel the emotions that are shown). Specifically, I analyzed the data to see if surface acting and deep acting is more or less harmful for nurses depending on the interaction target. To do this, I looked at responses to a survey that indicated the degree to which nurses engaged in surface acting and deep acting with various targets as well as their reported levels of burnout, their physical symptoms, as well as turnover intentions. Overall, I found that nurses were significantly more likely to use both regulation strategies with external targets (i.e., those who are external to the workplace) than with internal organizational targets. Burnout was significantly related to both regulation strategies. Deep acting showed select differences between targets. Physical symptoms were significantly related to both regulation strategies. Surface acting with external targets had a significantly stronger relationship with physical symptoms, as did deep acting with different targets. Turnover intentions were significantly related to surface acting. Surface acting with external targets had a significantly weaker relationship with turnover intentions than surface acting with internal targets. Deep acting with fellow nurses had significantly stronger relationships with turnover intentions than the other targets. Significant unique predictors were identified with supplemental analyses

    911,What\u27s My Emergency? Emotional Labor, Work-Related Rumination, and Strain Outcomes in Emergency Medical Dispatchers

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    The work of Emergency Medical Dispatchers (EMDs) is filled with a variety of stressors, and one of those being emotional labor. Despite research on emotional labor, few studies have quantitatively examined this construct within EMDs. Compared to the plethora of emotional labor literature that focuses on the display of positive emotions, EMDs are required to suppress or neutralize any negative reactions they may experience. Hence, this study was concerned with the further examination of emotional labor, physical health outcomes, burnout, and job satisfaction in a unique population. Additionally, the construct of work-related rumination is in its infancy. It can be argued that surface acting and deep acting serve as antecedents to work-related rumination. One hundred one participants from a Midwest emergency communications professional group completed self-report surveys on emotional labor, work-related rumination, and strain outcomes. Results showed EMDs experience higher levels of surface acting compared to other professions, and surface acting is more detrimental and leads to more negative outcomes compared to deep acting. The affective rumination component of the work-related rumination was also positively correlated to strain outcomes. Lastly, those that reported higher levels of surface acting also endorsed higher levels of affective rumination. In conclusion, EMDs do experience high levels of emotional labor, and engage in the more taxing surface acting strategy. This also suggests that the relationship between surface acting and affective rumination, contributes to the most strain outcomes, and it may be that affective rumination mediates the relationship between suppression of feelings (surface acting) and strain outcomes. Further directions and limitations are also discussed

    Ripple Effects of Surface acting: A Diary Study among Dual-earner Couples

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    This study among 80 dual-earner couples examines the ripple effects of emotional labour – on a daily basis. Specifically, we propose that employees who engage in surface acting at work drain their energetic resources, and undermine their own relationship satisfaction. Drawing upon conservation of resources (COR) theory, we predicted that work-related exhaustion would mediate the relationship between surface acting at work and at home. In addition, we hypothesized that employees’ emotional energy in the evening would mediate the relationship between surface acting at home and (actor and partner) satisfaction with the relationship. Participants filled in a survey and a diary booklet during five consecutive working days (N = 80 couples, N = 160 participants x 5 days, N = 800 occasions). The hypotheses were tested with multilevel analyses, using the actor–partner interdependence model. Results showed that daily work-related exhaustion partially mediated the relationship between daily surface acting at work and at home. As hypothesized, daily surface acting at home influenced own and partner’s daily relationship satisfaction through reduced daily emotional energy. These findings offer support for COR theory, and have important implications for organizations that encourage emotion regulation

    Emotional intelligence, emotional labor, and job satisfaction among physicians in Greece

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    BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that psychological constructs, such as emotional intelligence and emotional labor, play an important role in various organizational outcomes in service sector. Recently, in the “emotionally charged” healthcare field, emotional intelligence and emotional labor have both emerged as research tools, rather than just as theoretical concepts, influencing various organizational parameters including job satisfaction. The present study aimed at investigating the relationships, direct and/or indirect, between emotional intelligence, the surface acting component of emotional labor, and job satisfaction in medical staff working in tertiary healthcare. METHODS: Data were collected from 130 physicians in Greece, who completed a series of self-report questionnaires including: a) the Wong Law Emotional Intelligence Scale, which assessed the four dimensions of emotional intelligence, i.e. Self-Emotion Appraisal, Others’ Emotion Appraisal, Use of Emotion, and Regulation of Emotion, b) the General Index of Job Satisfaction, and c) the Dutch Questionnaire on Emotional Labor (surface acting component). RESULTS: Emotional intelligence (Use of Emotion dimension) was significantly and positively correlated with job satisfaction (r=.42, p<.001), whereas a significant negative correlation between surface acting and job satisfaction was observed (r=−.39, p<.001). Furthermore, Self-Emotion Appraisal was negatively correlated with surface acting (r=−.20, p<.01). Self-Emotion Appraisal was found to influence job satisfaction both directly and indirectly through surface acting, while this indirect effect was moderated by gender. Apart from its mediating role, surface acting was also a moderator of the emotional intelligence-job satisfaction relationship. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that surface acting could predict job satisfaction over and above emotional intelligence dimensions. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study may contribute to the better understanding of emotion-related parameters that affect the work process with a view to increasing the quality of service in the health sector
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