371,989 research outputs found

    Method of joining aluminum to stainless steel Patent

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    Joining aluminum to stainless steel by bonding aluminum coatings onto titanium coated stainless steel and brazing aluminum to aluminum/titanium coated stee

    Behaviour of concrete filled stainless steel elliptical hollow sections

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    This paper presents the behaviour and design of axially loaded concrete filled stainless steel elliptical hollow sections. The experimental investigation was conducted using normal and high strength concrete of 30 and 100 MPa. The current study is based on stub column tests and is therefore limited to cross-section capacity. Based on the existing design guidance in Eurocode 4 for composite columns, the proposed design equations use the continuous strength method to determine the strength of the stainless steel material. It is found to provide the most accurate and consistent prediction of the axial capacity of the composite concrete filled stainless steel elliptical hollow sections due largely to the more precise assessment of the contribution of the stainless steel tube to the composite resistance

    Gas metal arc welding of modified X2CrNi12 ferritic stainless steel

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    X2CrNi12 ferritic stainless steel is a low cost stainless steel grade exhibiting good corrosion and abrasion resistance. Typical applications for this steel are bus frames and chassis, railway wagons for coal and iron ore, mining and mineral processing, sugar and chemical process equipment, furnace parts etc. The modern production routes now allow fabricating this grade with low carbon content (< 0.015 %) and low impurity levels improving the weldability substantially. Regarding to these conditions, this modified stainless steel grade becomes more attractive. In this paper, microstructural and toughness properties and mechanical properties of gas metal arc welded 6 mm thick modified X2CrNi12 stainless steel with two different heat inputs are presented. Promising results have been obtained. Interesting correlation has been found between microstructure (e.g. grain size) and impact toughness

    Composition, Phase Structure, and Corrosion of Nickel-Free and Nickel-Containing Stainless Steel Orthodontic Wires

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    Stainless steel wires have long been used in orthodontics. The austenitic stainless steel used in orthodontics contains approximately 18 wt% chromium and 8 wt% nickel. Nickel improves the corrosion resistance and helps maintain the austenite structure of stainless steel. Nickel is the most allergenic metal and is the most common metal associated with contact dermatitis in orthodontics. Nickel-free wires have been developed, and it was the goal of this study to compare nickel-free and nickel-containing stainless steel orthodontic wires to determine and compare their composition, phase structure, and corrosion properties. For each test, nickel-free and conventional stainless steel wires were compared from four companies: Acme Monaco, Dentaurum, Leone, and Scheu-Dental. Phase structure was determined using x-ray diffraction. Composition was measured using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy. For each wire, straight lengths were sectioned into 1-inch segments, arranged side-by-side, to create a 1-inch by 1-inch planar array of wires secured with sticky wax. Resultant XRD pattern peaks were indexed using standard methods or via ICDD files. Electrochemical corrosion tests were completed using a 3-electrode cell with a potentiostat and Gamry corrosion test software. Fusayama-Meyer artificial saliva solution was used as the electrolyte at room temperature. For each wire brand, wire lengths were isolated using nail polish, exposing a consistent surface area to account for varying diameters of the wires among brands. Open circuit potential, polarization resistance, and corrosion current density were determined. Data were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a 0.05 significance value with a Tukey\u27s Studentized Range (HSD) Test post hoc analysis, where required. Two nickel-free wires had detectable amounts of nickel. All nickel-free stainless steel wires had an increased amount of manganese, chromium, and molybdenum with decreased iron content. The orthodontic stainless steel wires are mostly austenitic, but martensite may be present in both types. Although there were significant differences among the wires for the three corrosion parameters, there was not a general difference between nickel-free and conventional stainless steel wires. Overall, despite composition differences between the nickel-free and nickel-containing stainless steel wires, they generally had the same phase structure and similar corrosion properties

    Aluminum and stainless steel tubes joined by simple ring and welding process

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    Duranel ring is used to join aluminum and stainless steel tubing. Duranel is a bimetal made up of roll-bonded aluminum and stainless steel. This method of joining the tubing requires only two welding operations

    Experimental and numerical studies of ferritic stainless steel tubular cross sections under combined compression and bending

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    An experimental and numerical study of ferritic stainless steel tubular cross sections under combined loading is presented in this paper. Two square hollow section (SHS) sizes—SHS 40×40×240×40×2 and SHS 50×50×250×50×2 made of Grade EN 1.4509 (AISI 441) stainless steel—were considered in the experimental program, which included 2 concentrically loaded stub column tests, 2 four-point bending tests, and 14 eccentrically loaded stub column tests. In parallel with the experimental investigation, a finite-element (FE) study was also conducted. Following validation of the FE models against the test results, parametric analyses were carried out to generate further structural performance data. The experimental and numerical results were analyzed and compared with the design strengths predicted by the current European stainless steel design code EN 1993-1-4 and American stainless steel design specification SEI/ASCE-8. The comparisons revealed that the codified capacity predictions for ferritic stainless steel cross sections under combined loading are unduly conservative. The deformation-based continuous strength method (CSM) has been extended to cover the case of combined loading. The applicability of CSM to the design of ferritic stainless steel cross sections under combined loading was also evaluated. The CSM was shown to offer substantial improvements in design efficiency over existing codified methods. Finally, the reliability of the proposals was confirmed by means of statistical analyses according to both the SEI/ASCE-8 requirements and those of EN 1990

    Thermocouples easily installed in hard-to- get-to places

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    Thermocouple wires attached to charged capacitors are inserted in a drilled hole. An electric charge fuses the thermocouple wires to the host material. This method has shown excellent results in fusing nichrome, chromel, Inconel, and stainless steel wires to nickel, beryllium, iron, steel, Inconel, and stainless steel

    Inhibition Effect of N, N'-Dimethylaminoethanol on the Corrosion of Austenitic Stainless Steel Type 304

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    The effect of N,N'-dimethylaminoethanol on the corrosion of austenitic stainless steel type 304 in 3M H2SO4 has been studied by weight-loss method and linear polarization measurement in different concentrations of the compound. The inhibition efficiencies of the inhibitor compound on the corrosion of the stainless steel were evaluated through assessment of the anodic and cathodic polarization curves of the alloy, the spontaneity of the electrochemical process, inhibition mechanism and adsorption isotherm. The inhibitor efficiency increased with increase in the inhibitor concentration. Results obtained reveal that the inhibitor performed effectively on the stainless steel providing good protection against pitting and uniform corrosion in the chloride containing acidic solutions. The compound act through physiochemical mechanism on the stainless steel surface and obeyed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The values of the inhibition efficiency calculated from the two techniques are in reasonably good agreement. Polarization studies showed that the compounds behave as mixed type inhibitor in the aggressive media
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