196 research outputs found

    Combining Proto-Scandinavian loanword strata in South Saami with the early Iron Age archaeological material of Central Sweden

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    In this article, I will examine South Saami prehistory from the perspectives of archaeology and historical lexicology. I will present a theoretical model that can be applied to a multidisciplinary research that uses methodologies from both the sciences and test it using South Saami material. My linguistic data consists of North-West Germanic and Early Proto-Scandinavian loanwords in South Saami. These loanword strata can be dated to 1‚Äď550 CE. I will make an inventory of the semantic categories of the words in the loanword strata to see from which domains words were borrowed. I will also examine the prominent individual words that might have significance as intercultural markers. The archaeological material used in the research includes hunting ground graves, iron manufacturing sites and dwelling sites in Dalarna and J√§mtland, Sweden. I will consider remain types, artefact finds and remain structures dated to 1‚Äď550 CE. Only those sites that have been excavated will be included in the data. I will correlate the lexical finds with the archaeological find groups in order to examine what the datasets together reveal about contacts between the South Saami and Scandinavian speakers. The combination of archaeological and lexical research gives new advantages and perspectives to the study of prehistory. The study brings new evidence for the prior hypothesis about South Saami speakers as domestic animal herders. The combination of the sciences also reveals that the earliest hunting ground graves should be considered to have belonged to a non-Saami speaking Paleo-European people. &nbsp

    The so-called relation forms of nouns in South Saami: A byproduct or remnant of Uralic *-mpV?

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    The paper describes a previously little-known grammatical category in South Saami. Termed here as ‚Äúrelation forms‚ÄĚ, the phenomenon in question is etymologically related to the comparative and superlative marking of adjectives, but synchronically quite distinct from it. The suffix -be/-√•bpoe can be attached to not only adjectives (e.g., nuerebe ‚Äėyounger‚Äô, b√•aras√•bpoe ‚Äėolder‚Äô), but also to nouns and kinship terms in particular (e.g., tjidtjebe ‚Äė(the) mother‚Äô, vuanav√•bpoe ‚Äė(the) mother-in-law‚Äô), and the superlative marker -mes/-ommes can be used similarly, albeit to a lesser extent. The paper discusses the position of such forms in South Saami morphology, syntax and sentential semantics, especially in relation to markers of definiteness and possession. From a diachronic perspective, South Saami sheds new light on the origin of the Saami-Finnic (and Hungarian) comparative marker *-mpV, and from a typological point of view, it is proposed that the closest analogues to the Saami phenomenon can be found in Tungusic, which also adds to our understanding of the development of *-mpV comparatives ‚Äď possibly from a more original contrastive function of the suffix

    Kantasaamesta eteläkantasaameen: Lainatodisteita eteläsaamen varhaisesta eriytymisestä

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    This article examines which loaning features indicate that the predecessor of South Saami ‚Äď Southern Proto-Saami ‚Äď drifted off from common Late Proto-Saami at an early date. We also suggest that this drift refers to linguistic immigration to central Scandinavia where South Saami is spoken today. Loanword ev¬≠idence provided are those from Northwest Germanic and Proto-Scandinavian found in South Saami that either have irregular sound substitutes compared to other Saami languages (e.g. South Saami word-me¬≠dial -r- in snaejrie ‚Äėslice (of bread, cheese)‚Äô cf. Inari Saami -tt- in sn√°ittu ‚Äėsplint‚Äô; South Saami initial h- in haame ‚Äėantlerless reindeer doe‚Äô cf. North Saami √°pmil); they are not found in any other Saami language (e.g. saar- in Saaraahka ‚Äėcreative old woman (divinity)‚Äô) or they have deviating semantic meaning com¬≠pared to other Saami languages (South Saami duvrie ‚Äėbear‚Äô; cf. North Saami divri ‚Äėinsect‚Äô). The number of such loanwords is 53 out of about 170. Even those loanwords, which do not show any kind of irregu¬≠larity when compared to other Saami languages, may have been borrowed into South Saami separately, however they do not contain any of those sounds that started a deviating development after the drift. In absolute chronology, the initial areal and dialectal drift happened in southern Finland around 200 CE. Features presented here are so numerous, though many of them are still quite sporadic, that we find there is sufficient evidence to show the early drift of South Saami. This dating also correlates with the changes seen in archaeological data taken from the South Saami-speaking area. Thus, the changes in archaeolog¬≠ical material most likely are caused by Saami speakers arriving to a new land and their intensively active contacts with the people already inhabiting the area

    The Indigenous Voice in Majority Media. South Saami Representations in Norwegian Regional Press 1880-1990

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    This chapter presents a survey of how South Saami people and Saami matters are represented in Mid-Norwegian regional newspapers from around 1880 to 1990. Papers published in Steinkjer, the regional capital of Nord-Tr√łndelag County, constitute the bulk of the material. To what extent and how are Saami matters represented in the newspapers? How do the papers represent South Saami identity? How and why do these representations change and to what extent and how are South Saami voices represented? The predominant topics are Reindeer herding, Saami politics, Education and language, History and culture. The period of my study coincides with the culmination and, from around 1970, the gradual elimination of the Norwegian assimilation policy towards the Saami population. Social Darwinist or racial biological views are practically non-existent in my material, although quite common in late 19th and early 20th century topographical literature about the Saami. There are examples of stereotyping and othering, mostly before the 1960s, but in general, the regional newspapers of my study take a respectful interest in Saami matters, although Saami matters do not make up a substantial part of the newspaper content until the 1970s.publishedVersio

    Er maskinoversetting fra nordsamisk nyttig for s√łrsamisk?

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    The article assesses the strengths and weaknesses of a rule-based translation program from North Saami to South Saami. As a tool for translators, the system can contribute to more text being produced in South Saami, both by using North Saami as an intermediary in the translation of texts from Norwegian and Swedish, and by translating texts that are originally written in North Saami. The system may also help teachers in academia to understand texts written by South Saami students. The system is still not good enough, in particular the number of word pairs in the lexicon must be increased considerably to get a better result. The translation is also not robust with respect tolinguistic errors in the North Saami text. The linguistic difference between North Saami and South Saami syntax is big, and one could consider whether it would be appropriate to use a rule-based approach, which allows using information about the sentences' dependencytrees, in order to more easily transform the sentences from North Saami syntax to acceptable South Saami

    Eteläsaamelaiset rautakautisessa Pohjolassa : Kielitieteellis-arkeologinen näkökulma

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    T√§m√§ v√§it√∂stutkimus k√§sittelee etel√§saamelaista menneisyytt√§ kielitiedett√§ ja arkeo-logiaa yhdistellen. Etel√§saamelaista menneisyytt√§ tarkastellaan kantaskandinaavisten kieli- ja kulttuurikontaktien sek√§ alkuper√§isuskontoon liittyvien ilmi√∂iden n√§k√∂kulmasta. Lis√§ksi tutkimuksessa kehitell√§√§n mallia, jonka avulla arkeologisen ja kielitieteellisen aineiston yhdist√§minen on mahdollista. Mallia sovelletaan etel√§saamelaiseen aineistoon. Kielitieteellinen aineisto k√§sitt√§√§ etel√§saamen sanaston kantaskandinaaviset lainasanat ja alkuper√§isuskontoon liittyv√§n sanaston. Arkeologinen aineisto k√§sitt√§√§ kaikki etel√§saamen puhuma-alueella Keski-Skandinaviassa olevat muinaisj√§√§nn√∂kset, jotka ajoittuvat vuodesta 200 eaa. vuoteen 550 jaa., sek√§ etel√§saamelaiseen alkuper√§isuskontoon liittyv√§t muinaisj√§√§nn√∂kset vuodesta 200 eaa. noin vuoteen 1800 jaa. Tutkimus on luonteeltaan soveltavaa ja nojaa perustutkimuksen tuloksiin: sanasto-aineistosta suurinta osaa on k√§sitelty aiemmissa etymologisissa tutkimuksissa, ja arkeologinen aineisto on ker√§tty kentt√§ty√∂raporteista ja julkaistuista tutkimuksista. Tutkimusmenetelm√§n√§ ensimm√§isess√§ ja toisessa osajulkaisuissa on W√∂rter und Sachen, jota tukemaan on tutkimuksen puitteissa kehitetty sanojen ja arkeologisten objektien systemaattisen korreloimisen mahdollistava teoreettinen malli. Mallin avulla aineistoa voidaan tarkastella sek√§ kategorisella ett√§ konkreettisella tasolla. Kategorisessa tasossa aineistot on lajiteltu sanojen osalta semanttisiin kategorioihin ja arkeologisten l√∂yt√∂jen osalta arkeologisiin kategorioihin, jotka kuvaavat niit√§ el√§m√§naloja, joilla arkeologinen ja kielitieteellinen aineisto korreloivat. Konkreettisella tasolla tarkastellaan W√∂rter und Sachen -menetelm√§n avulla aineistoon sis√§ltyvien leksikaalisten l√∂yd√∂sten ja arkeologisten l√∂yt√∂jen korrelaatioita. Lis√§ksi mallia soveltamalla voidaan vertailla leksikaalisten l√∂yd√∂sten ja arkeologisten l√∂yt√∂jen ik√§√§. Kolmannessa osajulkaisussa n√§k√∂kulma on ainoastaan kielitieteellinen, ja tutkimusmenetelm√§n√§ ovat historiallis-vertailevan kielentutkimuksen ja kontaktilingvistiikan menetelm√§t. Tutkimuksen pyrkimyksen√§ on ajoittaa absoluuttisesti etel√§saamen erilliskehityksen alku germaanisen lainasana-aineiston avulla. Etel√§saamen absoluuttisen kronologian hahmottelussa germaanisista kielist√§ tehty absoluuttinen kronologia on keskeisess√§ roolissa. Sanasto- ja arkeologisen aineiston systemaattisen yhdist√§misen mallin avulla on mahdollista tarkastella systemaattisesti etel√§saamen kantaskandinaavisen lainasanakerrostuman ja alkuper√§isuskontoon liittyv√§n sanaston korrelaatioita arkeologisen aineiston kanssa. Korrelaatiot todistavat etel√§saamenkielisen v√§est√∂n l√§sn√§olosta Keski-Skandinaviassa 200-luvulta jaa. l√§htien. T√§t√§ ajoitusta tukevat my√∂s kolman¬¨nen osajulkaisun tutkimustulokset. Arkeologiset kotiel√§imiin viittaavat l√∂yd√∂t ja kantaskandinaavista lainattu kotiel√§imiin viittaava sanasto osoittaa etel√§saamenkielisen v√§est√∂n harjoittaneen karjanhoitoa ennen poronomadismiin siirtymist√§√§n. Etel√§saamen kantaskandinaavisten lainasanojen tutkimus kertoo etel√§saamelaisen kantamurteen eronneen ensimm√§isen√§ yhteisest√§ kantasaamelaisesta kielest√§. Uskontoon liittyv√§ tutkimus paljastaa, ett√§ arkeologisen ja sanastollisen aineiston korrelaatioita voidaan hy√∂dynt√§√§ sanojen semanttisten muutosten absoluuttisissa ajoituksissa. Tutkimus tuo uusia n√§k√∂kulmia etel√§saamelaiseen menneisyyteen. Erityisesti se vahvistaa, ett√§ etel√§saamelaisten juuret Keski-Skandinaviassa ulottuvat ajanlaskun alkuun asti. Lis√§ksi teoreettisen mallin soveltaminen etel√§saamelaiseen aineistoon osoittaa arkeologisen ja kielitieteellisen aineiston systemaattisen yhdist√§misen olevan mahdollista.The South Saami in the North during the Iron Age. Linguistic-archaeological perspective In this doctoral thesis, the South Saami past is studied by combining linguistics and archaeology. The South Saami past is examined from the perspectives of language and culture contacts between the South Saami and Proto-Scandinavian speakers as well as matters related to the South Saami indigenous religion. In addition, a theoretical model is developed to enable combination of archaeological and linguistic data. The model is applied to the South Saami material. The linguistic data includes the South Saami words that are borrowed from the Proto-Scandinavian language and the South Saami vocabulary that relates to indigenous religion. Archaeological data consists of all the archaeological remains that are considered to be part of the South Saami past in central Scandinavia and date to 200 BCE‚Äď550 CE. Also, all the remain types that relate to indigenous religion in the South Saami area from 200 BCE to 1800 CE are included in the archaeological data. The research is based on fundamental research made independently in both, archaeology and linguistics: most of the words in the data has been handled in etymological studies and the archaeological material is collected from excavation reports and published studies; no excavations or other archaelogical field work has been conducted in this study. Thus, the study is applied in nature. The research method of the first and second case study is W√∂rter und Sachen, which is supported further by the theoretical model for the systematic correlation of archaeological and lexical material created in this study. With the help of the model, the datasets can be examined both on categorical and concrete level. On the categorical level, the datasets have been categorized in semantic categories (words) and archaeological categories (archaeological finds). These categories represent those life domains of the past on which archaeological and linguistic data correlate. On the concrete level, the lexical finds (words) and archaeological finds are examined and correlated with the help of W√∂rter und Sachen method. In addition, the theoretical model is applicable when comparison of the age of the lexical finds and datings of the archaeological finds is needed. The third study case has only linguistic perspective. In this case study, the historical method and methods of contact linguistics are applied. The case study aims at creating an absolute chronology for the development of Proto-Saami into Southern Proto-Saami with the help of Germanic loanwords. The absolute chronology of Germanic languages is of significance when creating an absolute chronology for South Saami as there are several Germanic loans of different ages in South Saami. The theoretical model for the systematic correlation of archaeological and lexical material enables the systematic study of Proto-Scandinavian loanwords and vocabulary of indigenous religion in relation to archaeological material. The correlations certify the presence of South Saami language and speakers in central Scandinavia from 200 CE. The absolute chronology made in the third case study also supports this dating. The archaeological findings and loanwords that refer to domestic animals indicate that the South Saami speakers practiced domestic animal husbandry before shifting to reindeer nomadism. The analysis of Germanic loanwords from the chronological perspective reveals that South Saami was the first language to disintegrate from the common Proto-Saami language. The second case study handling the indigenous religion indicates that the correlations between archaeological and lexical datasets can be used in dating the semantic changes of words. The research brings new perspectives on the South Saami past. Particularly, it confirms that the roots of the present-day South Saami people in central Scandinavia reach to the beginning of the Common Era. The theoretical significance of the research is the development of the theoretical model for the systematic correlation of archaeological and lexical material. The study has given proof that such systematic correlations are possible

    Sjiele sacrifices, Odin treasures and Saami graves?

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    This paper presents archaeological findings described as Saami metal deposits. These well-known "Finds from Lapp Places of Sacrifice", objects from the Viking Age and Early Middle Ages, were mostly found in northern Sweden. The author also presents a research project dealing with prehistoric and medieval Saami graves from the south Saami area

    The Indigenous Identity of the South Saami

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    This open access book is a novel contribution in two ways: It is a multi-disciplinary examination of the indigenous South Saami people in Fennoscandia, a social and cultural group that often is overlooked as it is a minority within the Saami minority. Based on both historical material such as archaeological evidence, 20th century newspapers, and postcard motives as well as current sources such as ongoing land-right trials and recent works of historiography, the articles highlight the culture and living conditions of this indigenous group, mapping the negotiations of different identities through the interaction of Saami and non-Saami people through the ages. By illuminating this under-researched field, the volume also enriches the more general debate on global indigenous history, and sheds light on the construction of a Scandinavian identity and the limits of the welfare state and the myth of heterogeneity and equality

    Next to nothing ‚Äď a cheap South Saami disambiguator

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    Proceedings of the NODALIDA 2011 Workshop Constraint Grammar Applications. Editors: Eckhard Bick, Kristin Hagen, Kaili M√ľ√ľrisep, Trond Trosterud. NEALT Proceedings Series, Vol. 14 (2011), 1‚Äď7. ¬© 2011 The editors and contributors. Published by Northern European Association for Language Technology (NEALT) http://omilia.uio.no/nealt . Electronically published at Tartu University Library (Estonia) http://hdl.handle.net/10062/19231
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