130,879 research outputs found

    Talking soil science with farmers

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    When agricultural researchers visit farms in order to gather information for their research programmes, farmers rarely get proper feedback. Research information on scientific concepts such as soil fertility and nutrient balances is often considered too abstract for them. Researchers in Kenya returned to farmers to discuss their results in the context of Farmer Field Schools. Through the workshops that ensued, they managed to find a common language to bridge the communication gap

    Leaching and phytoavailability of zinc and cadmium in a contaminated soil treated with zero-valent iron

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    Immobilization of heavy metals by stabilization amendments is a promising method to restore contaminated soils. In our study, we investigated the efficiency of zero-valent iron (Fe0) added to the soil in the form of iron grit to reduce leaching and uptake of Zn and Cd by Lupinus albus L. Results of column leaching experiments show that metal leaching decreased proportionally to the rate of amendment application (1%, 2% or 5%: w/w) and that the reduction reached up to 98% and 83% for Zn and Cd respectively. An increase in pH and in the number of sorption sites which bind ionic free metals and organometal complexes are possible mechanisms for this attenuation. Moreover, a rhizobox experiment has demonstrated that phytoavailability of Zn and Cd was reduced by 63% and 45% respectively when soil was treated with 5% (w/w) iron grit, and that L. albus did not develop strategies to reduce Zn and Cd uptake in untreated soil. We conclude that covering contaminated soil with L. albus could be used in association with immobilization techniques for soil remediation. However, it is crucial that the amendment and the soil be thoroughly homogenized in order to ensure the maximum reduction of metal uptake

    Entering the digital world (Pedometrics 2009)

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    Development in pedometrics has not only shaped the research agenda in soil science but also attracted the attention of practitioners from other communities such as environmental modelling and land management who require digital information on soils. At the same time, demands from these communities and developments in information technology help to fuel and drive the research agenda of pedometrics. These factors have combined to draw scientists with diverse backgrounds and interests into the field of pedometrics over its short history as a distinctive subdiscipline of soil science

    Visible and near infrared spectroscopy in soil science

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    This chapter provides a review on the state of soil visible–near infrared (vis–NIR) spectroscopy. Our intention is for the review to serve as a source of up-to date information on the past and current role of vis–NIR spectroscopy in soil science. It should also provide critical discussion on issues surrounding the use of vis–NIR for soil analysis and on future directions. To this end, we describe the fundamentals of visible and infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and spectroscopic multivariate calibrations. A review of the past and current role of vis–NIR spectroscopy in soil analysis is provided, focusing on important soil attributes such as soil organic matter (SOM), minerals, texture, nutrients, water, pH, and heavy metals. We then discuss the performance and generalization capacity of vis–NIR calibrations, with particular attention on sample pre-tratments, co-variations in data sets, and mathematical data preprocessing. Field analyses and strategies for the practical use of vis–NIR are considered. We conclude that the technique is useful to measure soil water and mineral composition and to derive robust calibrations for SOM and clay content. Many studies show that we also can predict properties such as pH and nutrients, although their robustness may be questioned. For future work we recommend that research should focus on: (i) moving forward with more theoretical calibrations, (ii) better understanding of the complexity of soil and the physical basis for soil reflection, and (iii) applications and the use of spectra for soil mapping and monitoring, and for making inferences about soils quality, fertility and function. To do this, research in soil spectroscopy needs to be more collaborative and strategic. The development of the Global Soil Spectral Library might be a step in the right direction

    Soil Science

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    Objectives: Understand that soil is composed of inorganic and organic solid material, water, and air.·Investigate the properties of the inorganic solid components of soil: sand, silt, and clay. Recognize that varying proportions of sand, silt, and clay in a soil impact the soil’s ability to hold and transmit water. Experimentally determine the soil texture of a local soil sample. Determine the chemical composition of a local soil sample for pH, nitrate, phosphorus, and potassium levels. Analyze a given soil’s ability to support crops such as corn, soybeans, wheat, and oats. Provide recommendations for amending a given soil to support the needs of various crop plants.https://digitalcommons.imsa.edu/urban_agriculture/1002/thumbnail.jp

    Correction to: Can bicarbonate enhance the performance of carob seedlings grown in nutrient solutions with different Fe concentrations?

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    Correction to: Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition https://doi.org/10.1007/s42729-019-00100-4info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Social soil science as a new approach in soil science

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    The article contains the authors’ reflections on the formation and substantiation of many aspects in soil science, concerning its connections with social sciences. Arguments about the exceptional importance of soil resources in the modern world and the importance of scientific research in soil science, which can become an important instrument of solving social problems, are found. It is shown that soil resources, being the basis of agricultural development, are the long-term capital through which different nations exist and develop. In order to maintain the normal living conditions of the population and to improve them, it is important to use this global resource wisely. The attitude of people to the soil is recognized as fundamental for nation’s sustainable development and, moreover, the life expectancy of a civilization may depend on the people attitude to soils. In order to maintain collective well-being of people, a long-term interest of the society in soil protection needs to be reoriented – this should become a priority task for our civilization. The current state of soils can be a characteristic of the development of society as well as a criterion for assessing the activity of government and social stability in the country

    Encyclopedia of soil science

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    Reference soils of south-western Australia

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    First printed 1991, Reprinted 2004https://researchlibrary.agric.wa.gov.au/books/1003/thumbnail.jp
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