121,816 research outputs found

    Immune-mediated loss of transgene expression from virally transduced brain cells is irreversible, mediated by IFNγ, perforin, and TNFα, and due to the elimination of transduced cells

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    The adaptive immune response to viral vectors reduces vector-mediated transgene expression from the brain. It is unknown, however, whether this loss is caused by functional downregulation of transgene expression or death of transduced cells. Herein, we demonstrate that during the elimination of transgene expression, the brain becomes infiltrated with CD4 and CD8 T cells and that these T cells are necessary for transgene elimination. Further, the loss of transgene-expressing brain cells fails to occur in the absence of IFNγ, perforin, and TNFα receptor. Two methods to induce severe immune suppression in immunized animals also fail to restitute transgene expression, demonstrating the irreversibility of this process. The need for cytotoxic molecules and the irreversibility of the reduction in transgene expression suggested to us that elimination of transduced cells is responsible for the loss of transgene expression. A new experimental paradigm that discriminates between downregulation of transgene expression and the elimination of transduced cells demonstrates that transduced cells are lost from the brain upon the induction of a specific antiviral immune response. We conclude that the anti-adenoviral immune response reduces transgene expression in the brain through loss of transduced cellsFil: Zirger, Jeffrey M.. Cedars Sinai Medical Center; Estados Unidos. University of California at Los Angeles. School of Medicine; Estados UnidosFil: Puntel, Mariana. University of California at Los Angeles. School of Medicine; Estados Unidos. Cedars Sinai Medical Center; Estados Unidos. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; ArgentinaFil: Bergeron, Josee. Cedars Sinai Medical Center; Estados Unidos. University of California at Los Angeles. School of Medicine; Estados UnidosFil: Wibowo, Mia. University of California at Los Angeles. School of Medicine; Estados Unidos. Cedars Sinai Medical Center; Estados UnidosFil: Moridzadeh, Rameen. University of California at Los Angeles. School of Medicine; Estados Unidos. Cedars Sinai Medical Center; Estados UnidosFil: Bondale, Niyati. Cedars Sinai Medical Center; Estados Unidos. University of California at Los Angeles. School of Medicine; Estados UnidosFil: Barcia, Carlos. Cedars Sinai Medical Center; Estados Unidos. University of California at Los Angeles. School of Medicine; Estados UnidosFil: Kroeger, Kurt M.. University of California at Los Angeles. School of Medicine; Estados Unidos. Cedars Sinai Medical Center; Estados UnidosFil: Liu, Chunyan. University of California at Los Angeles. School of Medicine; Estados Unidos. Cedars Sinai Medical Center; Estados UnidosFil: Castro, Maria Graciela. University of California at Los Angeles. School of Medicine; Estados Unidos. Cedars Sinai Medical Center; Estados Unidos. University of Michigan; Estados UnidosFil: Lowenstein, Pedro R.. Cedars Sinai Medical Center; Estados Unidos. University of California at Los Angeles. School of Medicine; Estados Unidos. University of Michigan; Estados Unido

    Alternative proof for the localization of Sinai's walk

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    We give an alternative proof of the localization of Sinai's random walk in random environment under weaker hypothesis than the ones used by Sinai. Moreover we give estimates that are stronger than the one of Sinai on the localization neighborhood and on the probability for the random walk to stay inside this neighborhood

    Hierarchy of random deterministic chaotic maps with an invariant measure

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    Hierarchy of one and many-parameter families of random trigonometric chaotic maps and one-parameter random elliptic chaotic maps of cn\bf{cn} type with an invariant measure have been introduced. Using the invariant measure (Sinai-Ruelle-Bowen measure), the Kolmogrov-Sinai entropy of the random chaotic maps have been calculated analytically, where the numerical simulations support the resultsComment: 11 pages, Late
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