66,465 research outputs found

    The lichen family Cladoniaceae in Paraiba, Pernambuco and Sergipe, Northeast Brazil

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    Field and herbarium studies of the lichen family Cladoniaceae in the states of Paraíba, Pernambuco and Sergipe, Northeast Brazil, yielded 22 species, many of them being new reports for the region. The phenolic compounds identified in each species are reported. Cladonia clathrata Ahti & Xavier Filho, Cladonia polita Ahti, Cladonia polyscypha Ahti & Xavier Filho, and Cladonia rugicaulis Ahti are described as new. C. clathrata, C. rhodoleuca Vainio, C. rugicaulis, C. salzmannii Nyl., and C. subminiata Stenroos appear to represent an element confined to northeastern Brazil

    Classic and spatial shift-share analysis of state-level employment change in Brazil

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    This paper combines classic and spatial shift-share decompositions of 1981 to 2006 employment change across the 27 states of Brazil. The classic shift-share method shows higher employment growth rates for underdeveloped regions that are due to an advantageous industry-mix and also due to additional job creation, commonly referred to as the competitive effect. Alternative decompositions proposed in the literature do not change this broad conclusion. Further examination employing exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) shows spatial correlation of both the industry-mix and the competitive effects. Considering that until the 1960s economic activities were more concentrated in southern regions of Brazil than they are nowadays, these results support beta convergence theories but also find evidence of agglomeration effects. Additionally, a very simple spatial decomposition is proposed that accounts for the spatially-weighted growth of surrounding states. Favourable growth in northern and centre-western states is basically associated with those states’ strengths in potential spatial spillover effect and in spatial competitive effect

    Market Alternatives for Smallholder Farmers in Food Security Initiatives: Lessons from the Brazilian Food Acquisition Programme

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    Policies that support the livelihoods of smallholder farmers are crucial in efforts to tackle poverty and hunger, especially when they are designed to combine different sectors of public intervention. Small farmers account for a significant share of developing countries? rural poor, who in turn account for 75 per cent of the total poor population in those countries (World Bank, 2008). Smallholdings are typically operated by the poor, who make substantial use of labour from their own households and from their equally poor or even poorer neighbours. Moreover, much of their income is usually spent on locally produced goods and services, thereby stimulating the rural off-farm economy and creating additional jobs (Hazell et al., 2007). They are also vital for food production and can play a significant role in increasing the availability of and access to food (United Nations, 2008). Small farmers use several different strategies to secure their livelihoods, with a view to ensuring that their food requirements are met and that they generate enough income for their immediate consumption needs, social purposes and investments. Interaction with agricultural markets is an essential part of these strategies. Markets are where, as producers, smallholders buy their agricultural inputs and sell their products; they are where, as consumers, smallholders use income from the sale of crops or from their non-agricultural activities to buy food and other consumption goods. Improved market access, therefore, is not only important for better-off producers or for the production of cash crops rather than food crops; it is also very important for smallholder farmers (IFAD, 2003). (?)Policies that support the livelihoods of smallholder farmers are crucial in efforts to tackle poverty and hunger, especially when they are designed t

    Un nouveau cassiduloïde (Echinodermata, Echinoidea) dans l'Albien du bassin de Sergipe-Alagoas, Brésil

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    This paper presents a new discovery of the echinoid species Phyllobrissus humilis (Gauthier, 1875) from the Albian age Riachuelo Formation of the Sergipe-Alagoas Basin. The only specimen obtained in the Maruim 1 outcrop expresses the main species characteristics. Paleoecological notes and a dichotomous key are presented to facilitate the identification of the cassiduloid species from the Cretaceous of Sergipe-Alagoas Basin.L'article décrit la découverte de l'espèce d'échinoïde Phyllobrissus humilis (Gauthier, 1875) dans la Formation Riachuelo d'âge Albien du bassin Sergipe-Alagoas. Le seul spécimen récolté provient dans l'affleurement de Maruim 1 et permet d'observer les principales caractéristiques de l'espèce. Des informations paléoécologiques et une clé dichotomique sont présentées pour faciliter l'identification des espèces de cassiduloïdes du Crétacé du bassin de Sergipe-Alagoas
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