432 research outputs found

    Russian loanwords in Skolt Saami

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    The distribution of the Russian loan vocabulary within the Saami languages centers on Skolt, Akkala, Kildin, and Ter Saami. In Skolt Saami, this loanword stratum forms the largest loanword stratum and contains more than 750 lexemes. Despite the significance of the loanword stratum, there has hardly been any actual analysis of the Russian loanwords in the Saami languages. This paper aims to fill this gap by presenting an overview of Russian vocabulary in Skolt Saami from a phonological, morphological, and semantic point of view. Besides analyzing the loanwords, approximately 150 new loan etymologies are discussed and some thirty new comparisons with Russian loanwords proposed in other Saami languages. It turns out that the Russian loan lexicon is relatively recent, and most if not all the words were borrowed from the Northwestern dialects of Russian between the beginning of the 17th century and 1920. Semantically the vocabulary is heterogenous. The most important semantic categories include religion, clothing, buildings and houses, diet, as well as administration and society

    Hieno teos saamesta

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    Kirja-arvioSammallahti, Pekka: The Saami Languages. An Introductio

    Linguistic Vitality, Endangerment, and Resilience

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    The concept of “resilience” originated in both ecology and psychology, and refers to the propensity of a system or entity to “bounce back” from a disturbance. Recently, the concept has found increasing application within linguistics, particularly the study of endangered languages. In this context, resilience is used to describe one aspect of long-term, cyclical changes in language vitality. Proponents of “resilience linguistics” argue that understanding long-term patterns of language vitality can be of use in fostering resilience in, and therefore maintenance of, endangered languages. This article takes a critical look at these proposals, based on the examination of long-term trends in the Monguor and Saami languages

    *-kkAs : a Proto-Uralic inclinative suffix

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    On the distribution and history of Saami verbal derivatives in -š-

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    The article presents a comparative-historical survey on Saami verbal derivatives with a suffixal *-š- (or *-šš-), based on extensive dictionary data from all Saami languages. The derivatives are divided into several subtypes using structural and functional criteria, and the distribution of each subtype as well as shared derivatives between Saami languages are investigated in order to illuminate the background of each subtype and their interrelations. It is argued that the essive verbs in *-āše̮- (South Saami vealkasjidh ‘appear white’) and denominal verbs in *-uše̮- (North Saami jallošit ‘play the fool’) as well as the diverse *-(e̮)še̮- verbs in the more peripheral languages descend from a single Proto-Saami *-še̮- derivative suffix with a general verbalizer function. The model of this type has probably also contributed to the emergence of the weak-grade *-Všše̮- type, which mainly consists of borrowings adapted from Finnic *-icce- verbs, such as North Saami dárbbašit (~ Finnish tarvitse-) ‘need’. Kokkuvõte. Juha Kuokkala, Eino Koponen: Saami -š-verbituletiste esinemisest ja ajaloost. Artiklis esitatakse võrdlev-ajalooline uurimus saami *-š- või *-šš- sufiksiga verbituletistest. Uurimus põhineb laialdasel sõnaraamatuainestikul kõigist saami keeltest. Tuletised jaotatakse strukturaalsete ja funktionaalsete kriteeriumide järgi alltüüpideks, ning iga alltüübi esinemist ja mitmele keelele ühiseid tuletisi vaadeldakse alltüupide tausta ja nende suhete selgitamiseks. Selle põhjal järeldame, et essiivsete *-āše̮ -verbide (lõunasaami vealkasjidh ‘paistma valgena’) ja denominaalsete *-še̮ -verbide (põhjasaami jallošit ‘veiderdama’) ning perifeersemate keelte erinevate funktsioonidega *-(e̮)še̮ -verbide taust peitub ühes ühises algsaami *-še̮-tuletusliites, mis algselt kandnud üldse verbistaja ja frekventatiivsufiksi funktsioone. Selle tüübi eeskuju on tõenäoliselt mõjutanud ka nõrgaastmelise *-Všše̮-tüübi tekkimist, mis peamiselt koosneb läänemeresoome *-icce-verbidest mugandatud laenudest, nagu põhjasaami dárbbašit (~ soome tarvitse-) ‘vajama’

    Place-name perspectives on the Saami past: The importance of multidisciplinary source criticism

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    This paper presents some basic methods for studying early modern and prehistoric times of Saami communities with the help of place-names. The main aim is to point out the fundamental significance of source criticism in such studies. The roles of linguistic and cultural information in place-name studies are also discussed. As an example, a study on the place-name family Guivi by T. I. ltkonen is revisited and some relevant previously unpublished archaeological material is reported. Finally a framework for a well-constructed study that combines place-names and cultural information is presented

    Northern Voices: Examining Language Attitudes in Recent Surveys on Ainu and Saami

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    Тhis paper takes a look at a number of recent surveys targeting Ainu and Saami speakers and learners in Japan and Finland respectively and examines whether or how factors such as prestige, status, and corpora, all linked to language revitalization, are reflected in the results and informants’ testimonies. Finally, the future of these languages is considered from the viewpoint of the recent theoretical framework of “Superdiversity”.В статье рассматриваются результаты обследований, проведенных среди носителей айнского и саамского языков, а также изучающих эти языки соответственно в Японии и Финляндии. В статье анализируется насколько такие факторы, как престиж, статус и корпуса, которые имеют отношение к языковой ревитализации, отражаются в результатах обследований и представлениях информантов. В заключение, будущее этих языков рассматривается в рамках недавно введенной в научный оборот теории супердиверситета

    Towards a phonological typology of Uralic languages

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    The paper focuses on phonological similarities between Uralic languages. The study is based on a dataset which includes 33 word-prosodic and segmental features of 28 Uralic languages or main dialects, including all traditional subgroups of the language family. In statistical analysis clustering and dimension reduction techniques such as multidimensional scaling are applied. This methodology enables to explore distinctive subgroups of languages as well as calculate distances between languages and language groups. As a result we present a quantitative phonological typology. The main division appears between western and central-eastern phonological types of the Uralic languages. The detected phonological subgroups coincide with the traditional ones, i.e. Finnic, Saami, Mordvin, Mari, Permic, Hungarian, Ob-Ugric and Samoyedic. The Hungarian subgroup (Standard Hungarian, Csángó Hungarian) and the Ob-Ugric subgroup (Northern Mansi, Eastern Mansi, Northern Khanty, Eastern Khanty) are internally stable. However, their interrelation and relationship with other groups is ambiguous; according to our results, Hungarian is typologically closer to the Western Uralic language groups (i.e. Finnic and Saami), whereas Ob-Ugric languages form a distinct branch of Central-Eastern Uralic. In general, the results reveal a significant influence of multiple areal connections on the phonological formation of Uralic languages.Аннотация. Карл Паюсалу, Кристел Уйбоаэд, Петер Помози, Эндре Немет и Тибор Фехер: К фонологической типологии уральских языков. В статье рассматриваются фонологические сходства между уральскими языками. Исследование основывается на выборке данных, которая включает 33 просодических и сегментных признака, которые применяются к 28 уральским языкам или их основным диалектам. Эта выборка покрывает все традиционно выделяемые группы уральской семьи. Для статистической обработки данных используются методы кластерного анализа и многомерного шкалирования. Такой подход позволяет исследовать выявленные подгруппы языков и рассчитывать расстояния между языками и языковыми группами. Результатом анализа является квантитативная фонологическая типология. Основная граница разделяет западный и центрально-восточный типы уральских языков. Выявленные фонологические подгруппы языков совпадают с традиционными: прибалтийско-финская, саамская, мордовская, марийская, пермская, венгерская, обско-угорская и самодийская. Венгерская подгруппа (стандартный венгерский и чангошский диалект) и обско-угорская подгруппа (северный мансийский, восточный мансийский, северный хантыйский, восточный хантыйский) демонстрируют внутреннюю стабильность. Однако их собственные взаимоотношения и отношение к другим подгруппам неоднозначны: наши результаты показывают, что венгерский язык типологически ближе к западно-уральской группе (т. е. прибалтийско-финским и саамским языкам), тогда как обско-угорские языки оказываются четко выделяемой ветвью центрально-восточных уральских языков. В целом, результаты раскрывают существенное влияние разнообразных ареальных связей на становление фонологии уральских языков.Ключевые слова: уральские языки, прауральский язык, фонология, типология, просодия слова, лингвистические ареалыKokkuvõte. Karl Pajusalu, Kristel Uiboaed, Péter Pomozi, Endre Németh ja Tibor Fehér: Uurali keelte fonoloogilisest tüpoloogiast. Artikkel keskendub uurali keelte fonoloogiliste sarnasuste võrdlemisele. Analüüsitav andmestik hõlmab 33 sõnaprosoodilist ja segmentaalset tunnusjoont 28-st uurali keelest või põhimurdest, mille hulgas on keeli kõigist traditsioonilistest allrühmadest. Statistilises uuringus rakendatakse klasteranalüüsi ja multidimensionaalsest skaleerimist. Nii eristatakse olulised allrühmad ja arvutatakse kaugused keelte ja keelerühmade vahel, saades uurali keelte kvantitatiivse fonoloogilise tüpoloogia. Esmane lahknemine ilmneb geograafiliselt läänepoolsete ning kesk- ja idapoolsete uurali keelte vahel. Nende sees tulevad esile traditsioonilised allrühmad: läänemeresoome, saami, mordva, mari, permi, ungari, obiugri ja samojeedi. Ungari (ungari kirjakeel, csángó) ja obiugri (põhjamansi, idamansi, põhjahandi, idahandi) on sisemiselt stabiilsed, kuid suhe nende kahe rühma vahel on ambivalentne. Meie tulemuste põhjal on ungari tüpoloogiliselt lähedasem läänepoolsetele uurali keeltele (st läänemeresoomele ja saamile), obiugri keeled moodustavad aga eraldi allrühma kesk- ja idauurali keelte hulgas. Saadud tulemused näitavad areaalsete kontaktide tähtsust uurali keelte fonoloogilise eripära kujunemises.Märksõnad: uurali keeled, proto-uurali, fonoloogia, tüpoloogia, sõna prosoodia, keeleareaali
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