154 research outputs found

    Work in Progress. Haydn’s Schemata and Hexachords: Two Analytical Case Studies

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    Two analytical case studies, from Haydn’s minuet al roverso (from the Symphony Hob. I: 47) and the opening movement of the String Quartet Op. 50, no. 6, show the interaction of galant schemata (Gjerdingen 2007) and the hexachordal solmization of the solfeggio tradition (Baragwanath 2020). Haydn plays upon conventional galant schemata—presumably elements of style shared by listeners who are closely familiar with the idiom (even if they do not have explicit schema labels); he also plays upon a more esoteric element of his own training and that of many other musicians in the period: hexachordal solmization. By considering both schemata and hexachords, I argue that Haydn’s conceits work on multiple levels, communicating with both stylistic insiders familiar with schemata, as well as with a narrower group of insiders trained in hexachordal solmization

    Anålisis de los schemata de estilo galante en la obra para flauta de los hermanos Pla: estudio de 12 sonatas en trío de Juan Bautista y José Pla

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    El presente Trabajo de Fin de MĂĄster se enfoca en el anĂĄlisis musical de una selecciĂłn de obras para flauta travesera del siglo XVIII a travĂ©s de la aplicaciĂłn de una metodologĂ­a de anĂĄlisis desarrollada recientemente por Robert O. Gjerdingen en su estudio Music in the Galant Style, en el que ofrece una nueva perspectiva de acercamiento a la mĂșsica de estilo galante. A travĂ©s de este anĂĄlisis se espera reconocer el desarrollo del estilo galante por parte de un compositor español a travĂ©s del uso de los esquemas compositivos propios de este estilo.Departamento de DidĂĄctica de la ExpresiĂłn Musical, PlĂĄstica y CorporalMĂĄster en MĂșsica Hispan

    Schemas and improvisation in Indian music

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    Indian classical musicians, like jazz musicians, display impressive ability to perform with an apparent fluency and spontaneity resembling that of normal speech. It has been suggested that this appearance of spontaneity, often labelled “improvisation”, relies largely on memorized materials, prepared in rehearsal and recalled sequentially in performance (Van Der Meer 1980, Slawek 1998). But there are occasions when no specific preparation is possible, for example when performers meet on the concert platform for the first time. Performers themselves differ in the degree to which they claim to be “improvising”, some emphasising the need for careful planning, others the desirability of spontaneity and risk-taking. An approach to understanding such phenomena would be to look at the cognitive schemas involved in Indian music performance, and the ways in which schemas can be spontaneously combined. According to cognitive psychology, a schema is a memory structure comprising an array of cognitive categories, which we acquire through repeatedly experiencing similar arrangements of facts or sequences of temporal events. Temporal schemas enable us to form expectations about a likely course of events, whether they are small-scale and relatively invariant (“scripts”), or larger-scale and variable in content (“plans”). Such schemas have been shown to be important components of style and structure in both notated music (Treitler, Gjerdingen) and oral verbal performance (Rubin). Cognitive anthropologists have distinguished cognitive (largely unconscious) and instituted (socially acknowledged or inscribed) schemas or models that convey foundational cultural meanings (Shore) and allow cultural competence (Bloch). Aspects of schema theory have clear relevance to the analysis of musical performance in oral musical cultures, whether we are looking at musical meanings, musical structure, or, it may be suggested, musical interactions. Analysis of a performance of Indian classical vocal performance suggests that “improvisation” in this case involves the spontaneous combination of multiple scripts and plans. These include a metrical schema, embodied in physical gestures and subdivided into smaller segments, a pitch schema or scale with added features of pitch hierarchy and prescribed melodic movement (the rāga), an arched contour schema, a verbal script (the song text), and small rhythmic ending-formulae (tihāī). Simultaneous combination as well as sequencing of these “given” elements enables soloist and accompanist to improvise coherently and in synchrony

    Leonard B. Meyer

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    Going Old School: Using Eighteenth Century Pedagogy Models to Foster Musical Skills and Creativity in Today\u27s Students

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    Recent research has illuminated a pedagogical approach to keyboard improvisation of the Italian conservatories of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, namely that of partimenti: single-stave, multiple clef exercises in which students were trained to improvise (Gjerdingen 2007, Sanguinetti 2012, van Tour 2015). This approach was passed down through oral instruction until the mid-twentieth century, when pedagogical priorities shifted away from improvisation and compositional creativity towards virtuosity, technique and adherence to the printed page. Simultaneously, the tradition of decade-long musical apprenticeship was replaced with semester-long courses in music theory and harmony. The existing research on partimenti presents a compelling historical narrative of its tradition, but fails to provide a comprehensive method for modern day application and study. In his Music in the Galant Style, Robert Gjerdingen guides readers in the process of understanding partimenti as a concatenation of his schemata; memorable musical patterns idiomatic to and ubiquitous throughout music of the Galant period (approximately 1720–1770). Giorgio Sanguinetti, in his The Art of Partimento: History, Theory and Practice, explains that these partimenti were first introduced through the study of regole or “rules:” musical events such as cadences and suspensions. By practicing the rules, students of the Galant period internalized the very patterns on which partimenti were based, thereby building their musical vocabulary and fluency within the galant language. While manuscripts of these exercises, primarily from student notebooks, or zibaldone, have been resurrected from the archives of European libraries and catalogued, there remains very little regarding the oral tradition of how rules and the improvisational realization of partimenti were taught. Gjerdingen’s website, Monuments of Partimenti (http://faculty-web.at.northwestern.edu/music/gjerdingen/partimenti), boasts a catalogue of known regole and partimenti. Like the manuscripts on which they are based, there is little to no verbal instruction on how to approach these exercises. Without the assistance of a trained teacher (a current rarity), the interested student would be overwhelmed and lost, not knowing where to begin. Therefore, there is a need for a comprehensive pedagogical method that aids modern-day students with independent rule study towards the goal of partimenti realization. Utilizing the rules of Francesco Durante (1684–1755), a leading Italian conservatory maestro of his day, this paper presents a step-by-step approach towards working through this historical method of teaching keyboard improvisation and composition. I discuss activities that may help the modern-day student in working through the rules and combining them into a complete partimento, including figured bass realization, study and performance of scores in trio-sonata texture, as well as “play-and-sing” activities. Additionally, it addresses voicing, invertible counterpoint, transposition, texture, and issues of ambiguity such as deciphering the figured bass and errors within the manuscripts. In addition to a comprehensive approach to Durante’s rules and their historical context, this paper presents a review of present literature on both historical and modern-day keyboard improvisation teaching methods, as well as suggestions for their applications. Through the rediscovery of the teaching method that trained some of history’s most remembered composers for several hundred years, students, with the tools provided in this paper, can single-handedly reconnect to a rich lineage of pedagogy traditions, developing musicianship skills seldom synthesized today and discovering what can be learned from the past. In addition to partimenti study, I introduce schemata analysis (Gjerdingen, 2007) as a springboard for compositional creativity. By stripping a piece down to its schemata, one is left with a skeleton of the piece or “lead sheet” on which to improvise. I demonstrate the prevalence of schemata in music throughout the eighteenth century by presenting analyses of varying solo keyboard works of the period and demonstrate a written-out improvisation from such an analysis

    Schemata und Systemcharakter

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    AnknĂŒpfend an Überlegungen der Philosophen Michael Esfeld und Martin Seel wird zunĂ€chst dargestellt, inwiefern sich musikanalytische Diskurse und musikalische Werke als Systeme beschreiben lassen. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird im Anschluss der Status von Schemata in der Schema Theory diskutiert und mit dem der â€șFigurenâ€č in der Schenkeranalytik verglichen. Das Ende des Beitrags bildet die Kritik einer Analyse, die Robert O. Gjerdingen zu den Skizzen von Joseph Haydns Hob. III: 33, iii in Music in the Galant Style vorgelegt hat. Following the arguments of the philosophers Michael Esfeld and Martin Seel it is first shown how music-analytical discourses and musical works can be described as systems. Against this background the status of schemata within Schema Theory is discussed and compared with the analytical ‘Figuren’ of Schenkerian Analysis. Finally, Robert O. Gjerdingen’s analysis of the sketches of Joseph Haydn’s Hob. III: 33, iii in Music in the Galant Style is critically evaluated

    El Sistema modal/tonal de la mĂșsica vocal hispĂ nica en temps de Cabanilles

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    El present article descriu el sistema modal/tonal emprat al segle xvii pels compositors hispĂ nics. La seua correcta comprensiĂł explica aquella sensaciĂł, com afirmava Josep Climent, d'un «fluctuar indecĂ­s entre les dues formes». Aquesta percepciĂł ve donada per l'expectativa d'escoltar una composiciĂł basada en el sistema modal renaixentista o en el sistema tonal vuitcentista, i no en un sistema diferenciat i amb caracterĂ­stiques prĂČpies, que Ă©s el que intentem descriure en el present treball.This article describes the modal/tonal system employed in the 17th century by Hispanic composers. True insight results in the sensation, as stated by Josep Climent, of an “indecisive flowing between the two forms”. This perception was produced by the expectation of hearing a composition based either on the Renaissance modal system or on the 19th century tonal system and not a differentiated system with its own features, which is what we attempt to describe in this work

    El Sistema modal/tonal de la mĂșsica vocal hispĂ nica en temps de Cabanilles

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    El present article descriu el sistema modal/tonal emprat al segle xvii pels compositors hispĂ nics. La seua correcta comprensiĂł explica aquella sensaciĂł, com afirmava Josep Climent, d'un «fluctuar indecĂ­s entre les dues formes». Aquesta percepciĂł ve donada per l'expectativa d'escoltar una composiciĂł basada en el sistema modal renaixentista o en el sistema tonal vuitcentista, i no en un sistema diferenciat i amb caracterĂ­stiques prĂČpies, que Ă©s el que intentem descriure en el present treball.This article describes the modal/tonal system employed in the 17th century by Hispanic composers. True insight results in the sensation, as stated by Josep Climent, of an indecisive flowing between the two forms. This perception was produced by the expectation of hearing a composition based either on the Renaissance modal system or on the 19th century tonal system and not a differentiated system with its own features, which is what we attempt to describe in this work

    Haydn’s Schemata and Hexachords: Two Analytical Case Studies

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