3 research outputs found

    Auditory Multi-Stability: Idiosyncratic Perceptual Switching Patterns, Executive Functions and Personality Traits

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    Multi-stability refers to the phenomenon of perception stochastically switching between possible interpretations of an unchanging stimulus. Despite considerable variability, individuals show stable idiosyncratic patterns of switching between alternative perceptions in the auditory streaming paradigm. We explored correlates of the individual switching patterns with executive functions, personality traits, and creativity. The main dimensions on which individual switching patterns differed from each other were identified using multidimensional scaling. Individuals with high scores on the dimension explaining the largest portion of the inter-individual variance switched more often between the alternative perceptions than those with low scores. They also perceived the most unusual interpretation more often, and experienced all perceptual alternatives with a shorter delay from stimulus onset. The ego-resiliency personality trait, which reflects a tendency for adaptive flexibility and experience seeking, was significantly positively related to this dimension. Taking these results together we suggest that this dimension may reflect the individual?s tendency for exploring the auditory environment. Executive functions were significantly related to some of the variables describing global properties of the switching patterns, such as the average number of switches. Thus individual patterns of perceptual switching in the auditory streaming paradigm are related to some personality traits and executive functions.</p

    School Violence and Teacher Resiliency at a Midwest Elementary/Middle School

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    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate, from the perspective of teachers, the possible effect of school violence on teacher resiliency. School violence has been studied with respect to student behavior and academic success, as well as socioeconomic influences, but not with respect to teacher resiliency, as expressed by teachers themselves. Resiliency theory was the conceptual framework. Participants were all teachers of Grades 2-8 at an elementary/middle school in the Midwest. Twelve in-depth interviews were transcribed into text data and analyzed for common themes. Using NVivo, Version 10, I was able to more easily manage the volumes of text data. Reoccurring themes and meanings were triangulated with a resiliency questionnaire, school climate surveys, and field notes. The overarching themes that emerged were that teacher resiliency at the target school was lowered when its teachers were exposed to a school climate which allowed for excessive violence, especially fights. A second overarching theme was that there were inconsistencies in the support offered by the school administration, which negatively impacted teacher resiliency. A third overarching theme was that there was a significant lack of parental and community support, which also negatively affected teacher resiliency at the target school. Overarching themes that emerged can now be used to support the need for more effective teacher training about school violence. The outcomes may also help generate improved school violence policies at the local, state, and national levels

    What is resilience in hospice inpatient nursing?:A participatory action research study

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    Background: The palliative care nursing workforce is depleted and faces increased demands due to an ageing population likely to be living longer with life-limiting conditions. Resilience is often suggested as necessary to enable nurses to tolerate rising levels of stress yet is often poorly defined and understood. Assumptions that resilience is the responsibility of individual nurses are challenged. Aim: To explore resilience from the perspective of hospice nurses; understand what individual, interpersonal and organisational factors influence resilience; develop strategies for enhancing resilience in hospice inpatient palliative care nursing; and to review and evaluate such strategies. Methods: Participatory Action Research (PAR) was used to identify the nature of adversity in inpatient palliative care nursing and develop strategies, designed by nurses themselves, to enhance resilience. Phase one involved semi-structured interviews with 7 registered nurses and phase two included twelve, monthly meetings of a Collaborative Inquiry Group, who engaged in a process of planning, acting and reflecting on the key issues identified in phase one. Findings: Resilience in inpatient palliative care nursing is preceded by the following adversities: being affected by certain patients, feeling kept in the dark, and when teamwork is sub-optimal. Resilience occurs when nurses make meaning from adverse experiences in ways that prepare them for future occurrences. Meaning making involves certain mindsets, team support and cohesion, and the ability to develop a coherent narrative about experiences. It is possible for nurses to innovate, generate and implement strategies to enhance resilience without relying on typically used interventions such as mindfulness, relaxation, CBT or other techniques that lay responsibility to tolerate inordinate stressors on the individual nurse. Conclusion: There are particular adversities encountered by the inpatient palliative care nursing workforce that influence resilience. Given the opportunity, nurses themselves can identify, develop and test strategies that may enhance resilience in their workplace