97 research outputs found

    Prevalência de ecto e endoparasitas em camundongos e ratos criados em biotério

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    Durante um per√≠odo de 5 anos (1986-1991) foram examinados 229 camundongos e 128 ratos, de ambos os sexos, com idade entre 1 a 2 meses, provenientes de 4 biot√©rios convencionais (2 de camundongos e 2 de ratos), e de um biot√©rio provido de barreiras sanit√°rias (camundongos controle). A amostragem semestral aleat√≥ria consistiu em 5% da popula√ß√£o das salas com mais de 100 animais cada. No exame cl√≠nico geral observaram-se distens√£o abdominal e diarr√©ia nos camundongos e ratos dos biot√©rios convencionais, o que n√£o foi constatado nos animais do biot√©rio controle. Discreta alopecia e p√™los eri√ßados foram detectados em todos os animais das col√īnias estudadas. Infesta√ß√Ķes porMyobia musculi, Myocoptes musculinus, Radfordia affinis, Radfordia ensiferae Poliplax spinulosa foram identificadas nas col√īnias convencionais, em infesta√ß√Ķes m√ļltiplas ou simples. Myobia musculiioi descrito pela primeira vez em ratos criados em biot√©rios. Infec√ß√Ķes por endoparasitas¬† Hymenolepis nana, Syphacia sp, Aspiculuris tetraptera, Trichomonas muris, Spironucleus muris, Giardia muris e Eimeria sp foram observadas nas col√īnias convencionais. Entretanto, atrav√©s dos resultados da necr√īpsia, na col√īnia controle de camundongos somente foram¬† encontrados Syphacia sp e Aspiculuris tetraptera. A necr√īpsia confirmou que o uso do m√©todo de anal-swab para detec√ß√£o de ovos de Syphacia sp √© prefer√≠vel ao de Willis, e revelou o grau de infec√ß√£o de protozo√°rios intestinais. Syphacia sp, Hymenolepis nana e Aspiculuris tetraptera foram eficientemente detectados pelo m√©todo de Willis.During five years (1986-1991), 229 mice and 128 rafs of both sexes, aged 01 to 02 months, from different breeding colonies in the city of S√£o Paulo, Brazil, were examined for parasitological control. Four conventional colonies (2 of rats and 2 of mice) and one mice barrier colony (control) were analyzed. Semi-annual sampling made use of 5% of the animals in the rooms. The population of each room comprised over 100 animals. In the general examination, abdominal distention and diarrhea wereobserved in the mice and rats from conventional colonies, but not in animals from the control colony. Mild alopecia and bristly hairs were detected in all animals from the evaluated colonies. Ectoparasites such as Myobia musculi, Myocoptes musculinus, Radfordia affinis, R. ensifera and Poliplax spinulosa were identified in the conventional colonies, in multiple and single infestations. Myobia musculi is described for the first time in rats reared in breeding colonies. Endoparasites such as Hymenolepisnana, Syphacia sp, Aspiculuris tetraptera, Tritrichomonas muris, Spironucleusmuris, Giardia muris, and Eimeria sp were observed in the conventional colonies. However, through necropsy results, in the control colony Syphacia sp and Aspiculuris tetraptera were the only parasites found. Necropsy confirmed the indication of the anal swab method for detection of Syphacia sp rather than the Willis method, and revealed the degree of infection by intestinal protozoa and Syphacia sp. H. nana and Aspiculuris tetraptera were efficiently detected by Willis method

    Effects of Fire on the Ectoparasites of Small Mammals in Longleaf Pine (Pinus Palustris) Habitats

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    I tested the hypothesis that fire significantly decreases prevalence and abundance of ectoparasites and therefore increases the condition of small mammals in longleaf pine habitats. I trapped two areas with paired burned and unburned sites in east central Georgia during 2002 2003. I collected 190 mammals from 9 species and recovered 32 ectoparasite species. I found little overlap in mammal species between paired sites. The overall chance for any mammal of having an ectoparasite was significantly greater on unburned sites (87.7% prevalence on burned vs. 100% unburned). There was no significant relationship between the number of individual ectoparasites on a mammal and its condition. Although I provide some evidence that fire can affect ectoparasite abundance, the pattern varied by site and was not consistent for all species. Several new host ectoparasite associations were recorded

    Incidence of Chirodiscoides caviae in Laboratory Rats-Screening, Identification and Treatment

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    This is a report on the incidence and treatment of the guinea pig fur mite Chirodiscoides caviae, which¬† was so far considered as host specific, in a conventional colony of laboratory rats. Chirodiscoides caviae¬† infestation in laboratory rats was accidentally observed during the screening of Syphacia obvelata by the¬† peri-anal cellophane tape test (CTT). The organism was identified by comparing the morphology described¬† by various researchers and was differentially diagnosed from other common mites of rat, Radfordia ensifera¬† and Notoedres muris. The adult male mites (n=15) were of 330.2¬Ī13.3 őľm long and the females (n=15)¬† 495.5¬Ī25.2 őľm. Later on, the entire rat colony consisting of Wistar, Sprague Dawley and Spontaneously¬† Hypertensive Rats (SHR) and the mice colony of Balb/c and Swiss Albino were randomly sampled and¬† screened for the presence of the mite by the cellophane tape technique. All the rat strains were found positive¬† for C. caviae infestation, which was more concentrated towards the posterior region of the body and,¬† collectively, the screening results of C. caviae revealed that the posterio-dorsal and peri-anal regions are¬† most suitable for sampling-suggesting that, the infestation pattern of C. caviae in rats has similarities to that¬† of guinea pigs. Interestingly the mice colony was found free from the infestation.¬†The Cellophane tape test was found to be an easier method than fur examination by hair plucking and equally¬† accurate for screening of fur mite in a colony of laboratory rats. No clinical symptoms were observed in¬† any of the animals in the colony, which possessed infestation. The facility strictly practised physical separation¬† of animals by species, which pointed to the only possibility of cross infestation being through indirect¬† contact between guinea pigs and laboratory rats and thereby questioning previous reports on the mode of¬† transmission of C. caviae. The entire colony was effectively treated with 0.2% Ivermectin spray followed by¬† 1% spray in an interval of 2 weeks. This report is the first one, which demonstrates the guinea pig fur mite¬† in laboratory rats. It also questions the so far documented ‚Äúhost specificity‚ÄĚ and ‚Äúdirect contact‚ÄĚ mode of¬† transmission and demonstrates indirect contact as a possible mode of transmission.

    Ectoparasites and Other Arthropod Associates of Some Voles and Shrews From the Catskill Mountains of New York

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    Reported here from the Catskill Mountains of New York are 30 ectoparasites and other associates from 39 smoky shrews, Sorex fumeus, 17 from 11 masked shrews, Sorex cinereus, 11 from eight long-tailed shrews, Sorex dispar, and 31 from 44 rock voles, Microtus chrotorrhinus

    Efficacy and safety of topical eprinomectin to control Myocoptes musculinus infestation in mice.

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    Myocoptes musculinus is the most common fur mite identified among laboratory mice; infested mice, in addition to dermatological signs, may also be prone to secondary infections, affecting the outcome of a research trial. This trial was conducted in order to assess the safety and efficacy of a single topical administration of eprinomectin (5mg/kg BW) in a naturally infested laboratory mice colony. A safety trial was conducted on 20 uninfested pregnant females assigned to two groups, receiving eprinomectin and mineral oil, respectively. The mice were examined daily for signs of illness or toxicity; nests were individually weighted at 21 and 28 days postpartum. No acute toxicity was observed, all treated females gave full term delivery and number and mean weight of newborns ranged in the physiological values. To evaluate the efficacy, 20 naturally infested non-pregnant females were divided into two groups, treated as in the safety trial. Animals were observed daily for 15 min until 21 days post-treatment (DPT) and a “pruritus index” (PI: scratching and gnawing acts/mouse/min) was calculated. Pelage examination was performed on DPT 7, 14, 21 and 50. The “PI” was significantly lower in the treated group and mites were eradicated from all infested animals. A single topical administration of eprinomectin at a (high) dosage of 5mg/kg BW was safe and effective to control M. musculinusin mice

    Ectoparasite burdens of the Damaraland mole-rat (Fukomys damarensis) from Southern Africa

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    Damaraland mole-rats (Fukomys damarensis) of the family Bathyergidae are widely distributed subterranean rodents in sub-Saharan Africa. No parasites have ever been reported for this species and only 1 ectoparasite is described for the entire genus. In the current study ectoparasites were collected from individuals captured at 3 localities in South Africa and Namibia to document the ectoparasite community of F. damarensis, investigate their aggregation patterns and evaluate the influence of season on ectoparasite burden. A total of 2,071 arthropods from 9 mite taxa and 1 louse species (Eulinognathus hilli) were collected from 293 hosts sampled. Of these 5 mite species (Androlaelaps scapularis, A. capensis, A. tauffliebi, Radfordia sp. and unidentified chiggers) and the louse were parasites while the remainder were soil mites. All ectoparasites were highly aggregated and the species richness as well as the prevalence and abundance of 4 of them were significantly greater in summer compared to winter, possibly as a result of seasonal changes in rainfall patterns affecting the ectoparasites and/or host behavior.NRF-SARChI chair for Mammalian Behavioural Ecology and Physiology, the NRF and the University of Pretoria.http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/jrnlparasitologyhb201

    Interpreting Neuroendocrine Hormones, Corticosterone, and Blood Glucose to Assess the Wellbeing of Anesthetized Rats during Euthanasia

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    Current recommendations for assessing animal wellbeing during euthanasia suggest that measuring neuroendocrine hormones-such as ACTH, noradrenaline, and adrenaline-is preferable to measuring corticosterone and blood glucose because of the sensitivity of neuroendocrine hormones to the acute stress associated with rapid methods of euthanasia. However, theseneuroendocrine hormones can be stimulated in ways that confound interpretation of welfare assessment in euthanasia studies.Although this property does not negate the usefulness of neuroendocrine hormones as tools of assessment, it is importantto differentiate the stress associated with the induction of anesthesia before the loss of consciousness (an animal wellbeingconcern) with the physiologic responses that occur after the loss of consciousness (not an animal wellbeing concern). In thisstudy, rats were anesthetized by using a ketamine-xylazine combination. Once the rats achieved a surgical plane of anesthesia,they were exposed to O2, CO2, or isoflurane, followed by terminal blood collection to assess concentrations of ACTH,noradrenaline, corticosterone, and blood glucose. Compared with animals exposed to O2 or isoflurane, rats exposed to CO2had significant increases in their serum concentrations of ACTH and noradrenaline, but blood glucose and corticosteronedid not differ between groups. These findings indicate that noradrenaline and ACTH should be used with caution to assessanimal wellbeing when the method of euthanasia might confound that assessment

    Infecciones mixtas por ectopar√°sitos y endopar√°sitos en ratones y ratas de laboratorio

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    Se ha determinado la presencia de parasitosis mixtas en ratones y ratas del Bioterio Central de la Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado (UCLA), y la correlaci√≥n entre ellas, seleccionando 10 animales por sexo, edad (3, 5, 7, 9 y 14 semanas), y cepa de rat√≥n (NMRI, C57Bl/6, Balb/c), y rata (Sprague Dawley y SHR/N) para un total de 500 animales seg√ļn recomendaciones de Thursfield, (1990). Las muestras se han obtenido por duplicado en vivo y en necropsia de: heces (Examen directo y Mc Master), piel (cuello, dorso-lumbar y ano) con la t√©cnica de celof√°n; sangre, coraz√≥n, pulm√≥n, h√≠gado, bazo, ri√Īones, est√≥mago e intestino (duodeno, yeyuno-√≠leon y ciego), en frotis te√Īidos con el m√©todo de Giemsa. Se ha determinado la frecuencia de infecciones mixtas y la correlaci√≥n entre las parasitosis mediante an√°lisis de correlaci√≥n de Spearman. Las especies identificadas han sido: Myocoptes musculinus, Giardia muris, Trichomona muris, Spironucleus muris, Syphacia obvelata y Apicularis tetraptera en los ratones , y Spironucleus muris solo en NMRI de 6 semanas. En las ratas se ha identificado Radfordia affinis, Giardia muris, Trichomona muris y Syphacia muris. Existe correlaci√≥n positiva de A. tetraptera con G. muris en ciego (r=0, 492; P<0, 01) y T. muris en duodeno (r=0, 362; P<0, 01). En NMRI casi el 100% est√°n parasitados por al menos 4 especies principalmente machos, √©ste comportamiento es similar en C57Bl/6 pero con prevalencias inferiores y en los Balb/c predominan 2 ( M. musculinus y G. muris) o 3 especies (M. musculinus , G. muris y T. muris). En ratas se producen infecciones mixtas (99, 9%) por 2-5 especies par√°sitas. Los flagelados son los m√°s comunes, asociados a S. obvelata o A. tetraptera en ratones, o S. muris en ratas, sumando la presencia de M. musculinus y R. affinis respectivamente. The occurrence of mixed parasitic infections was analyzed in laboratory mice and rats. The study was conducted in 500 animals randomly selected in the vivarium at the Universidad Centro-occidental Lisandro Alvarado (Barquisimeto, Venezuela). A total of 10 animals for each sex (male versus female), age group (3, 5, 7, 9 y 14 weeks) and strain of mice (NMRI, C57Bl/6 and Balb/c) and rats (Sprague Dawley and SHR/N) was selected. Duplicate samples were taken from various locations and analyzed by different methods, including the McMaster technique for faecal egg counting, the cellophane tape technique for skin samples (neck, back, lumbar and anus), and Giemsastaining for smears of different tissues (blood, heart, lung, liver, spleen, kidneys, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and caecum). Various parasites were identified in mice (Myocoptes musculinus, Giardia muris, Trichomona muris, Spironucleus muris, Syphacia obvelata y Apicularis tetraptera) and rats (Radfordia affinis, Giardia muris, Trichomona muris y Syphacia muris). Spironucleus muris was only identified in NMRI mice aged six weeks. The coefficient of ranks of Spearman revealed a positive correlation between A. tetraptera and G. muris in the caecum (r=0.492; P<0.01), or T. muris in the duodenum (r=0.362; P<0.01). Mixed infections with four species were seen in most NMRI and C57Bl/6 male mice. Mixed infections with two (M. musculinus and G. muris) o three species (M. musculinus, G. muris and T. muris) predominated in Balb/c mice. Mixed infections with two-to-five species were seen in most rats. Flagellate protozoa were the most prevalent parasites in both mice and rats, followed by S. obvelata and A. tetraptera (mice) or S. muris (rats)

    Estudo de ectoparasitas no porquinho-da-√ćndia e noutros pequenos roedores dom√©sticos

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    Disserta√ß√£o de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterin√°riaOs pequenos roedores s√£o animais cada vez mais escolhidos como animais de estima√ß√£o um pouco por todo o mundo, sendo muitos deles tamb√©m utilizados em investiga√ß√Ķes m√©dicas e laboratoriais. Estes animais s√£o, por vezes, hospedeiros de ectoparasitas, alguns deles com potencial zoon√≥tico. Contudo, em Portugal, pouco se sabe sobre as preval√™ncias destes parasitas nos roedores dom√©sticos e sobre o seu potencial impacto na sa√ļde p√ļblica. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a preval√™ncia dos ectoparasitas considerados mais comuns nos pequenos roedores dom√©sticos em Portugal, em particular na regi√£o de Lisboa. Foram recolhidos ao n√≠vel da cl√≠nica, um total de 44 casos suspeitos de presen√ßa de ectoparasitas (34 foram recolhidos dos arquivos da cl√≠nica e os restantes 10 foram recolhidos durante o per√≠odo de seis meses de est√°gio), estando estes distribu√≠dos por 38 porquinhos-da-√ćndia, quatro mur√≠deos (duas ratazanas e dois ratos), um cricet√≠deo (um hamster dourado) e uma chinchila. Os animais foram posteriormente analisados atrav√©s de t√©cnicas de exame direto do p√™lo, recolha do mesmo e tricograma, raspagens superficial e profunda da pele, teste da fita adesiva e observa√ß√£o ao microsc√≥pio √≥tico. Procedeu-se ainda √† an√°lise estat√≠stica descritiva dos dados obtidos. Os porquinhos-da-√ćndia (n=38) foram positivos a Trixacarus caviae (52,6%), Chirodiscoides caviae (21,1%), Demodex caviae (2,6%), Notoedres muris (2,6%), Psoroptes cuniculi (2,6%), Sarcoptes scabiei (2,6%), Gliricola porcelli (13,2%) e Gyropus ovalis (2,6%). Os mur√≠deos (n=4) foram positivos a Trixacarus caviae (50%) e Myocoptes musculinus (50%). A chinchila (n=1) foi positiva a Trixacarus caviae e o cricet√≠deo (n=1) foi positivo a Demodex aurati. Dos 44 animais examinados, 23 (52,3%) denotaram a presen√ßa do √°caro Trixacarus caviae, oito (18,2%) do √°caro Chirodiscoides caviae, um (2,3%) do √°caro Demodex caviae, um (2,3%) do Demodex aurati, um (2,3%) do √°caro Notoedres muris, dois (4,5%) do √°caro Myocoptes musculinus, um (2,3%) do √°caro Psoroptes cuniculi, um (2,3%) do √°caro Sarcoptes scabiei, cinco (11,4%) do piolho Gliricola porcelli e um (2,3%) do piolho Gyropus ovalis. Verificou-se que em porquinhos-da-√ćndia a preval√™ncia de piolhos (15,8%) √© bastante inferior √† de √°caros (84,2%), sendo Gliricola porcelli e Trixacarus caviae, o piolho e √°caro, respetivamente, mais prevalentes nos pequenos roedores dom√©sticos da amostra.ABSTRACT - STUDY OF ECTOPARASITES IN GUINEA PIGS AND OTHER DOMESTIC SMALL RODENTS - Nowadays, small rodents are becoming more popular around the world as house pets and some of them are vastly used in laboratorial and medical research. These animals are sometimes hosts of ectoparasites, some of them with zoonotic potencial. However, in Portugal little is known about the prevalence of ectoparasites in small pet rodents, and about their potencial impact in public health. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the most common ectoparasites in small pet rodents in Portugal, in particular in the Lisbon district. A total of 44 samples from animal suspected of being infested with ectoparasites, were gathered at the practise (34 animals were collected from the clinic arquives and the other 10 were gathered during the six months of internship). 38 of them were guinea pigs, four were murids (two rats and two mice), one cricetid (one golden hamster) and one chinchilla. These animals were later analysed through dermatological techniques, such as direct observation of the fur, trichogram, superficial and deep skin scrapings, adhesive tape test and observation of the gathered samples under light microscope. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed with the gathered data. Guinea pigs (n=38) were positive to Trixacarus caviae (52,6%), Chirodiscoides caviae (21,1%), Demodex caviae (2,6%), Notoedres muris (2,6%), Psoroptes cuniculi (2,6%), Sarcoptes scabiei (2,6%), Gliricola porcelli (13,2%) and Gyropus ovalis (2,6%). The murids (n=4) were positive to Trixacarus caviae and Myocoptes musculinus. The chinchilla (n=1) was positive to Trixacarus caviae and the cricetid (n=1) was positive to Demodex aurati. Out of the 44 examined animals, 23 (52,3%) were infested with the mite Trixacarus caviae, eight (18,2%) with the mite Chirodiscoides caviae, one (2,3%) with the mite Demodex caviae, one (2,3%) with the mite Demodex aurati, one (2,3%) with the mite Notoedres muris, two (4,5%) with the mite Myocoptes musculinus, one (2,3%) with the mite Psoroptes cuniculi, one (2,3%) with the mite Sarcoptes scabiei, five (11,4%) with the lice Gliricola porcelli and one (2,3%) with the lice Gyropus ovalis. It was verified that in guinea pigs the lice prevalence (15,8%) is much lower than the mite prevalence (84,2%), and that the most prevalent lice is Gliricola porcelli and the most prevalent mite is Trixacarus caviae

    Ivermectina no tratamento de camundongos (Mus muscullus) infestados por √°caros

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    A utiliza√ß√£o de animais de laborat√≥rio em pesquisa √© uma pr√°tica comumente empregada, por√©m estes estudos podem ser afetados pelas condi√ß√Ķes ambientais e infecciosas. Este estudo visou relatar a infesta√ß√£o mista por ectoparasitos em camundongos (¬†¬†Mus muscullus) mantidos em um biot√©rio experimental e testar um protocolo terap√™utico no controle dos parasitos. Em 20 animais foi observado pelo seco, √°reas de alopecia com les√Ķes avermelhadas e √ļmidas, prurido intenso e crostas na regi√£o dorsal do corpo. Dos camundongos avaliados, foi coletado pelo e realizado raspado cut√Ęneo para an√°lise microsc√≥pica, onde se identificou nesses roedores √°caros das esp√©cies Radfordia affinis, Myocoptes musculinus e Demodex sp. Os roedores foram separados em dois grupos, sendo que os animais do grupo A foram tratados com ivermectina 1% dilu√≠da em √°gua na dose de 0,007 mg.ml-1 por cinco dias consecutivos e os do grupo B n√£o foram tratados. Ap√≥s 10 dias do in√≠cio do tratamento, no grupo A n√£o foram encontrados √°caros, j√° no grupo B o n√ļmero de ectoparasitos e as les√Ķes de pele aumentaram. Portanto, conclui-se que a terapia utilizada apresenta efic√°cia nos controle de infesta√ß√Ķes por estes √°caros
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