105,967 research outputs found

    MSIQ: Joint Modeling of Multiple RNA-seq Samples for Accurate Isoform Quantification

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    Next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology has been widely used to assess full-length RNA isoform abundance in a high-throughput manner. RNA-seq data offer insight into gene expression levels and transcriptome structures, enabling us to better understand the regulation of gene expression and fundamental biological processes. Accurate isoform quantification from RNA-seq data is challenging due to the information loss in sequencing experiments. A recent accumulation of multiple RNA-seq data sets from the same tissue or cell type provides new opportunities to improve the accuracy of isoform quantification. However, existing statistical or computational methods for multiple RNA-seq samples either pool the samples into one sample or assign equal weights to the samples when estimating isoform abundance. These methods ignore the possible heterogeneity in the quality of different samples and could result in biased and unrobust estimates. In this article, we develop a method, which we call "joint modeling of multiple RNA-seq samples for accurate isoform quantification" (MSIQ), for more accurate and robust isoform quantification by integrating multiple RNA-seq samples under a Bayesian framework. Our method aims to (1) identify a consistent group of samples with homogeneous quality and (2) improve isoform quantification accuracy by jointly modeling multiple RNA-seq samples by allowing for higher weights on the consistent group. We show that MSIQ provides a consistent estimator of isoform abundance, and we demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of MSIQ compared with alternative methods through simulation studies on D. melanogaster genes. We justify MSIQ's advantages over existing approaches via application studies on real RNA-seq data from human embryonic stem cells, brain tissues, and the HepG2 immortalized cell line

    Discover hidden splicing variations by mapping personal transcriptomes to personal genomes.

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    RNA-seq has become a popular technology for studying genetic variation of pre-mRNA alternative splicing. Commonly used RNA-seq aligners rely on the consensus splice site dinucleotide motifs to map reads across splice junctions. Consequently, genomic variants that create novel splice site dinucleotides may produce splice junction RNA-seq reads that cannot be mapped to the reference genome. We developed and evaluated an approach to identify 'hidden' splicing variations in personal transcriptomes, by mapping personal RNA-seq data to personal genomes. Computational analysis and experimental validation indicate that this approach identifies personal specific splice junctions at a low false positive rate. Applying this approach to an RNA-seq data set of 75 individuals, we identified 506 personal specific splice junctions, among which 437 were novel splice junctions not documented in current human transcript annotations. 94 splice junctions had splice site SNPs associated with GWAS signals of human traits and diseases. These involve genes whose splicing variations have been implicated in diseases (such as OAS1), as well as novel associations between alternative splicing and diseases (such as ICA1). Collectively, our work demonstrates that the personal genome approach to RNA-seq read alignment enables the discovery of a large but previously unknown catalog of splicing variations in human populations

    RNA-Seq optimization with eQTL gold standards.

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    BackgroundRNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) experiments have been optimized for library preparation, mapping, and gene expression estimation. These methods, however, have revealed weaknesses in the next stages of analysis of differential expression, with results sensitive to systematic sample stratification or, in more extreme cases, to outliers. Further, a method to assess normalization and adjustment measures imposed on the data is lacking.ResultsTo address these issues, we utilize previously published eQTLs as a novel gold standard at the center of a framework that integrates DNA genotypes and RNA-Seq data to optimize analysis and aid in the understanding of genetic variation and gene expression. After detecting sample contamination and sequencing outliers in RNA-Seq data, a set of previously published brain eQTLs was used to determine if sample outlier removal was appropriate. Improved replication of known eQTLs supported removal of these samples in downstream analyses. eQTL replication was further employed to assess normalization methods, covariate inclusion, and gene annotation. This method was validated in an independent RNA-Seq blood data set from the GTEx project and a tissue-appropriate set of eQTLs. eQTL replication in both data sets highlights the necessity of accounting for unknown covariates in RNA-Seq data analysis.ConclusionAs each RNA-Seq experiment is unique with its own experiment-specific limitations, we offer an easily-implementable method that uses the replication of known eQTLs to guide each step in one's data analysis pipeline. In the two data sets presented herein, we highlight not only the necessity of careful outlier detection but also the need to account for unknown covariates in RNA-Seq experiments

    NBLDA: Negative Binomial Linear Discriminant Analysis for RNA-Seq Data

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    RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) has become a powerful technology to characterize gene expression profiles because it is more accurate and comprehensive than microarrays. Although statistical methods that have been developed for microarray data can be applied to RNA-Seq data, they are not ideal due to the discrete nature of RNA-Seq data. The Poisson distribution and negative binomial distribution are commonly used to model count data. Recently, Witten (2011) proposed a Poisson linear discriminant analysis for RNA-Seq data. The Poisson assumption may not be as appropriate as negative binomial distribution when biological replicates are available and in the presence of overdispersion (i.e., when the variance is larger than the mean). However, it is more complicated to model negative binomial variables because they involve a dispersion parameter that needs to be estimated. In this paper, we propose a negative binomial linear discriminant analysis for RNA-Seq data. By Bayes' rule, we construct the classifier by fitting a negative binomial model, and propose some plug-in rules to estimate the unknown parameters in the classifier. The relationship between the negative binomial classifier and the Poisson classifier is explored, with a numerical investigation of the impact of dispersion on the discriminant score. Simulation results show the superiority of our proposed method. We also analyze four real RNA-Seq data sets to demonstrate the advantage of our method in real-world applications

    Gene expression and splicing alterations analyzed by high throughput RNA sequencing of chronic lymphocytic leukemia specimens.

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    BackgroundTo determine differentially expressed and spliced RNA transcripts in chronic lymphocytic leukemia specimens a high throughput RNA-sequencing (HTS RNA-seq) analysis was performed.MethodsTen CLL specimens and five normal peripheral blood CD19+ B cells were analyzed by HTS RNA-seq. The library preparation was performed with Illumina TrueSeq RNA kit and analyzed by Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing system.ResultsAn average of 48.5 million reads for B cells, and 50.6 million reads for CLL specimens were obtained with 10396 and 10448 assembled transcripts for normal B cells and primary CLL specimens respectively. With the Cuffdiff analysis, 2091 differentially expressed genes (DEG) between B cells and CLL specimens based on FPKM (fragments per kilobase of transcript per million reads and false discovery rate, FDR q < 0.05, fold change >2) were identified. Expression of selected DEGs (n = 32) with up regulated and down regulated expression in CLL from RNA-seq data were also analyzed by qRT-PCR in a test cohort of CLL specimens. Even though there was a variation in fold expression of DEG genes between RNA-seq and qRT-PCR; more than 90 % of analyzed genes were validated by qRT-PCR analysis. Analysis of RNA-seq data for splicing alterations in CLL and B cells was performed by Multivariate Analysis of Transcript Splicing (MATS analysis). Skipped exon was the most frequent splicing alteration in CLL specimens with 128 significant events (P-value <0.05, minimum inclusion level difference >0.1).ConclusionThe RNA-seq analysis of CLL specimens identifies novel DEG and alternatively spliced genes that are potential prognostic markers and therapeutic targets. High level of validation by qRT-PCR for a number of DEG genes supports the accuracy of this analysis. Global comparison of transcriptomes of B cells, IGVH non-mutated CLL (U-CLL) and mutated CLL specimens (M-CLL) with multidimensional scaling analysis was able to segregate CLL and B cell transcriptomes but the M-CLL and U-CLL transcriptomes were indistinguishable. The analysis of HTS RNA-seq data to identify alternative splicing events and other genetic abnormalities specific to CLL is an added advantage of RNA-seq that is not feasible with other genome wide analysis

    Comparison of reproducibility, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of miRNA quantification platforms

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    Given the increasing interest in their use as disease biomarkers, the establishment of reproducible, accurate, sensitive, and specific platforms for microRNA (miRNA) quantification in biofluids is of high priority. We compare four platforms for these characteristics: small RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), FirePlex, EdgeSeq, and nCounter. For a pool of synthetic miRNAs, coefficients of variation for technical replicates are lower for EdgeSeq (6.9%) and RNA-seq (8.2%) than for FirePlex (22.4%); nCounter replicates are not performed. Receiver operating characteristic analysis for distinguishing present versus absent miRNAs shows small RNA-seq (area under curve 0.99) is superior to EdgeSeq (0.97), nCounter (0.94), and FirePlex (0.81). Expected differences in expression of placenta-associated miRNAs in plasma from pregnant and non-pregnant women are observed with RNA-seq and EdgeSeq, but not FirePlex or nCounter. These results indicate that differences in performance among miRNA profiling platforms impact ability to detect biological differences among samples and thus their relative utility for research and clinical use

    Near-optimal RNA-Seq quantification

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    We present a novel approach to RNA-Seq quantification that is near optimal in speed and accuracy. Software implementing the approach, called kallisto, can be used to analyze 30 million unaligned paired-end RNA-Seq reads in less than 5 minutes on a standard laptop computer while providing results as accurate as those of the best existing tools. This removes a major computational bottleneck in RNA-Seq analysis.Comment: - Added some results (paralog analysis, allele specific expression analysis, alignment comparison, accuracy analysis with TPMs) - Switched bootstrap analysis to human sample from SEQC-MAQCIII - Provided link to a snakefile that allows for reproducibility of all results and figures in the pape
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