23,702 research outputs found

    An Ensemble Model of QSAR Tools for Regulatory Risk Assessment

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    Quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs) are theoretical models that relate a quantitative measure of chemical structure to a physical property or a biological effect. QSAR predictions can be used for chemical risk assessment for protection of human and environmental health, which makes them interesting to regulators, especially in the absence of experimental data. For compatibility with regulatory use, QSAR models should be transparent, reproducible and optimized to minimize the number of false negatives. In silico QSAR tools are gaining wide acceptance as a faster alternative to otherwise time-consuming clinical and animal testing methods. However, different QSAR tools often make conflicting predictions for a given chemical and may also vary in their predictive performance across different chemical datasets. In a regulatory context, conflicting predictions raise interpretation, validation and adequacy concerns. To address these concerns, ensemble learning techniques in the machine learning paradigm can be used to integrate predictions from multiple tools. By leveraging various underlying QSAR algorithms and training datasets, the resulting consensus prediction should yield better overall predictive ability. We present a novel ensemble QSAR model using Bayesian classification. The model allows for varying a cut-off parameter that allows for a selection in the desirable trade-off between model sensitivity and specificity. The predictive performance of the ensemble model is compared with four in silico tools (Toxtree, Lazar, OECD Toolbox, and Danish QSAR) to predict carcinogenicity for a dataset of air toxins (332 chemicals) and a subset of the gold carcinogenic potency database (480 chemicals). Leave-one-out cross validation results show that the ensemble model achieves the best trade-off between sensitivity and specificity (accuracy: 83.8 % and 80.4 %, and balanced accuracy: 80.6 % and 80.8 %) and highest inter-rater agreement [kappa (κ): 0.63 and 0.62] for both the datasets. The ROC curves demonstrate the utility of the cut-off feature in the predictive ability of the ensemble model. This feature provides an additional control to the regulators in grading a chemical based on the severity of the toxic endpoint under study

    The use of a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model to predict GABA-A receptor binding of newly emerging benzodiazepines

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    The illicit market for new psychoactive substances is forever expanding. Benzodiazepines and their derivatives are one of a number of groups of these substances and thus far their number has grown year upon year. For both forensic and clinical purposes it is important to be able to rapidly understand these emerging substances. However as a consequence of the illicit nature of these compounds, there is a deficiency in the pharmacological data available for these ‘new’ benzodiazepines. In order to further understand the pharmacology of ‘new’ benzodiazepines we utilised a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) approach. A set of 69 benzodiazepine-based compounds was analysed to develop a QSAR training set with respect to published binding values to GABAA receptors. The QSAR model returned an R2 value of 0.90. The most influential factors were found to be the positioning of two H-bond acceptors, two aromatic rings and a hydrophobic group. A test set of nine random compounds was then selected for internal validation to determine the predictive ability of the model and gave an R2 value of 0.86 when comparing the binding values with their experimental data. The QSAR model was then used to predict the binding for 22 benzodiazepines that are classed as new psychoactive substances. This model will allow rapid prediction of the binding activity of emerging benzodiazepines in a rapid and economic way, compared with lengthy and expensive in vitro/in vivo analysis. This will enable forensic chemists and toxicologists to better understand both recently developed compounds and prediction of substances likely to emerge in the future

    Automatic generation of alignments for 3D QSAR analyses

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    Many 3D QSAR methods require the alignment of the molecules in a dataset, which can require a fair amount of manual effort in deciding upon a rational basis for the superposition. This paper describes the use of FBSS, a pro-ram for field-based similarity searching in chemical databases, for generating such alignments automatically. The CoMFA and CoMSIA experiments with several literature datasets show that the QSAR models resulting from the FBSS alignments are broadly comparable in predictive performance with the models resulting from manual alignments

    Ontology of core data mining entities

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    In this article, we present OntoDM-core, an ontology of core data mining entities. OntoDM-core defines themost essential datamining entities in a three-layered ontological structure comprising of a specification, an implementation and an application layer. It provides a representational framework for the description of mining structured data, and in addition provides taxonomies of datasets, data mining tasks, generalizations, data mining algorithms and constraints, based on the type of data. OntoDM-core is designed to support a wide range of applications/use cases, such as semantic annotation of data mining algorithms, datasets and results; annotation of QSAR studies in the context of drug discovery investigations; and disambiguation of terms in text mining. The ontology has been thoroughly assessed following the practices in ontology engineering, is fully interoperable with many domain resources and is easy to extend

    QSAR study for carcinogenicity in a large set of organic compounds

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    In our continuing efforts to find out acceptable Absorption, Distribution, Metabolization, Elimination and Toxicity (ADMET) properties of organic compounds, we establish linear QSAR models for the carcinogenic potential prediction of 1464 compounds taken from the "Galvez data set", that include many marketed drugs. More than a thousand of geometry-independent molecular descriptors are simultaneously analyzed, obtained with the softwares E-Dragon and Recon. The variable subset selection method employed is the Replacement Method, and also the improved version Enhanced Replacement Method. The established models are properly validated through an external test set of compounds, and by means of the Leave-Group-Out Cross Validation method. In addition, we apply the Y-Randomization strategy and analyze the Applicability Domain of the developed model. Finally, we compare the results obtained in present study with the previous ones from the literature. The novelty of present work relies on the development of an alternative predictive structure-carcinogenicity relationship in a large heterogeneous set of organic compounds, by only using a reduced number of geometry independent molecular descriptors.Fil: Duchowicz, Pablo Román. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - La Plata. Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquímicas Teóricas y Aplicadas. Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas. Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquímicas Teóricas y Aplicadas; ArgentinaFil: Comelli, Nieves Carolina. Universidad Nacional de Catamarca. Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias; ArgentinaFil: Ortiz, Erlinda del Valle. Universidad Nacional de Catamarca. Facultad de Tecnología y Ciencias Aplicadas; ArgentinaFil: Castro, Eduardo Alberto. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - La Plata. Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquímicas Teóricas y Aplicadas. Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas. Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquímicas Teóricas y Aplicadas; Argentin

    Investigation on Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships of 1,3,4 Oxadiazole Derivatives as Potential Telomerase Inhibitors

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    The published manuscript is available at EurekaSelect via http://www.eurekaselect.com/164022/article, DOI : 10.2174/1570163815666180724113208. © 2018 Bentham ScienceA series of 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives with significant broad-spectrum anticancer activity against different cell lines, and demonstrated telomerase inhibition, was subjected to Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) analysis. Validated models with high correlation coefficients were developed. The Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) models, by Ordinary Least Squares (OLS), showed good robustness and predictive capability, according to the Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM = 0.8352), a technique that simultaneously enhances the performances of a certain number of criteria. The descriptors selected for the models, such as electrotopological state (E-state) descriptors, and extended topochemical atom (ETA) descriptors, showed the relevant chemical information contributing to the activity of these compounds. The results obtained in this study make sure about the identification of potential hits as prospective telomerase inhibitors.Peer reviewedFinal Accepted Versio

    Use of the R-group descriptor for alignment-free QSAR

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    An R-group descriptor characterises the distribution of some atom-based property, such as elemental type or partial atomic charge, at increasing numbers of bonds distant from the point of substitution on a parent ring system. Application of Partial Least Squares (PLS) to datasets for which bioactivity data and R-group descriptor information are available is shown to provide an effective way of generating QSAR models with a high level of predictive ability. The resulting models are competitive with the models produced by established QSAR approaches, are readily interpretable in structural terms, and are shown to be of value in the optimisation of a lead series
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