3,452 research outputs found

    TOWARD A THEORY OF POSITIVE DEVIANCE

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    Although many studies have been conducted in regard to groups or individuals deemed to be negative deviants, there is a relative dearth of theoretical or empirical analysis of positive deviance. This dissertation attempts to theoretically analyze the concept of positive deviance. The literature related to positive deviance was examined and categorized. Positive deviance was defined as behavior that people label (i.e., publicly evaluate) in a superior sense and behavior that usually results because the behavior departs from that which is considered normal or normative. In addition, the previously postulated examples of positive deviance were utilized to form a typology of positive deviance. These types of positive deviance are the following: innovative behavior, supra-conforming behavior, altruistic behavior, possessors of innate characteristics, and charismatic behavior. Each type of positive deviance was then discussed in relation to literature from literature in sociology and other disciplines. A further theoretical issue that was presented was that of the relativity of positive deviance. As is the case with negative deviance, actions or behaviors that are defined as positive deviance vary over time, across societies, and within societies. To demonstrate this point, a group of individuals originally labeled as positive deviance (i.e., Nobel Prize winners in science) were compared with individuals collectively designated to be negative deviants and then later elevated to a positive deviant status. In addition, the literature (i.e., anomie, cultural support, societal reaction, and conflict) developed in the field of deviance (i.e., negative) was discussed in general and then examined to determine to what extent each could be applicable to positive deviance. Finally, some future areas of research were suggested. In essence, this dissertation was conducted to attempt to achieve a step toward a theory of positive deviance

    Positive Deviance pada Status Gizi Balita

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    Background: Positive Deviance (PD) is a ÔÇśpower' based approach having a belief that in each community there are certain individuals as the actors of ÔÇśpositive deviance' that own specific habit and behavior. They might find out better ways to prevent nutritional deficiency compared to their surroundings that possess the same resource and face the same risk as well.Objective: To find out PD behavior in poor family towards under-five children's nutritional status in Astanajapura Health Center working area of Cirebon District.Method: The study used a case control study design and in-depth interview. Subjects were under-five children 6-59 months of age. Data collection used a questioner and interview. Data analysis used univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis with logistic regression to determine OR and 95% CI of the effect of PD behavior towards under-five good nutritional status.Result: Under-five good nutritional status was significantly related to PDbehavior (OR=7.43; 95% CI=1.89ÔÇô29.17). The other factors affecting under-five good nutritional status were maternal education (OR=6.63; 95%CI=1.63ÔÇô23.90) and under-five age (OR=4.05; 95% CI=1.16ÔÇô14.10).Conclusion: Under-five good nutritional status had a significant relationship with PD behavior

    Daerah Positive Deviance sebagai Rekomendasi Model Perbaikan Gizi

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    This research aimed to improve nutritional status of toddler by applying positive deviance areas model and to establish a pilot model  of positive deviance areas mapping between positive deviance good nutritional  statuses of toddler and the vulnerable nutritional status of toddler in Boyolali District. This study used quantitative and qualitative approaches, with purposive sampling and snow ball sampling technique. Conclusions of this study were (1) map of positive deviance regionbetween nutritional status and environmental Boyolali district, which was in 2 areas namely Karanggede and Juwangi health center, (2) the short-term recommended model were improving nutritional status by empowering the people who possess the potential, especially in social and culture, which include aspects of social organization, knowledge and language, occupation, as well as technology and equipment

    The Positive Deviance of Feeding Practices and Carring with Nutritional Status of Toddler Among Poor Families

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    There are poor families with income less than minimum wage (IDR 1,900,000 / month) In Baru Village, Sarolangun Jambi. However, in reality the majority of toddler in the village have a relatively good nutritional status. The purpose of this study was to know the positive deviance of feeding practices and carring with nutritional status of toddler among poor families. This study used a cross-sectional study design. This research was conducted on April until August, 2016 in Village's Baru, Sarolangun, Jambi. The sampling technique in this study was total sampling. The samples was 84 under five age children from poor families. Determination of nutritional status using indicators of Weight for Age, which refers to the standard Kemenkes RI. The data of positive deviance taken using a questionnaire tools. The data collected was analyzed by univariate and bivariat test(chi-square test). The results showed that the positive deviance of infant feeding practice habits (91,7%), toddler's care (85,7%), nutritional status of toddler (90,5%) categorized was good. The conclusion, the are relationship between positive deviance of feeding practices and carring with nutritional status of toddler among poor families (p<0,05)

    Pengaruh Positive Deviance Terhadap Kejadian Malaria Pada Mahasiswa Universitas Cenderawasih

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    Penyakit malaria masih menjadi masalah kesehatan masyarakat di dunia, termasuk di Indonesia.  Perilaku positive deviance merupakan salah satu faktor yang berpengaruh terhadap kejadian malaria. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh positive deviance terhadap kejadian malaria pada Mahasiswa Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat Universitas Cenderawasih. Penelitian ini menggunakan penelitian observasional analitik dengan desain penelitian cross sectional study untuk menemukan positive deviance pencegahan penyakit malaria. Pengambilan sampel menggunakan stratified proportional random sampling. Data dianalisis menggunakan analisis univariat untuk memperoleh gambaran karakteristik responden. Sedangkan analisis bivariat (uji chi-square) bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan kemaknaan antara variabel dependen (positive deviance) dengan variabel independent (kejadian malaria), serta uji regresi logistik untuk menilai variabel kekuatan hubungan antara variabel. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa positive deviance merupakan variabel yang memiliki pengaruh paling dominan terhadap kejadian malaria (p=0,000) dan Exp(B)=14,827, CI 95% 4,866-44,180). Hasil uji chi-square menunjukkan bahwa ada pengaruh antara umur terhadap kejadian malaria terhadap nilai p=0,002 dan ada pengaruh antara jenis kelamin terhadap kejadian malaria terhadap nilai p=0,000. Pendekatan positive deviance dapat digunakan sebagai upaya pencegahan dan pengendalian penyakit malaria melalui peran aktif dari pihak kampus universitas cenderawasih dan kader kesehatan atau tokoh masyarakat

    Positive Deviance and Hand Hygiene

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    Healthcare-associated infections (HAis) are significant problems to our nation since these are n1ajor causes of n1orbidity and mortality and these produce both financial and medical burden. Good hand hygiene is one of the most effective measures for preventing healthcareassociated infections (HAls); however, hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers is poor. An1ong 1nany strategies to in1prove hand hygiene behavior in healthcare workers, this paper reviews current I iterature on hand hygiene and introduces the Positive Deviance (PD) 1nethod to achieve high hand hygiene compliance and i1nprove hand hygiene behaviors Existing literatures and guidelines on hand hygiene and PD are synthesized, and benefits and li1nitations of a PD approach toward improving hand hygiene are described. The PD method was introduced to healthcare workers in a local comn11mity-teaching hospital and brochures on PD and hand hygiene were provided PD is a method that finds \u27 what works\u27 in existing organizations that demonstrate exceptional positive perfonnance. It is a social and behavior change model and it has potential to create organizational change in hand hygiene practice where both behavioral and attitudinal changes are needed. Using PD can benefit for identifying and disseminating best practices within the con1n1tmity. It involves 1nultimodal strategies that are effective in hand hygiene improven1ent. However, n1ore research is needed in order to evaluate the efficacy of this strategy for in1proving hand hygiene practice among health care worker

    IMPLEMENTASI POSITIF DEVIANCE (PENYIMPANGAN POSITIF) DALAM PEMBERDAYAAN PERPUSTAKAAN DI DINAS KEARSIPAN DAN PERPUSTAKAAN DAERAH KABUPATEN WONOSOBO

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    This article discusses the implementation of Positive Deviance in the Library Empowerment in the Office of Regional Archives and Library. The purpose of this study is to explain the action carried out by the Regional Library towards the development of its library through the practice of Positive Deviance. The method employed in this research is descriptive qualitative using data analysis of Miles and Huberman. The research finds that the Office of Regional Library and Archives in Wonosobo developed its library by some innovations in its services. The Regional Library also produces various achievements and innovations as a result of the strategic phases of library development in applying the concept of Positive Deviance. Finally, this study recommends that the implementation of Positive Deviance could also be implemented to the Village Libraries in the Regency of Wonosobo by empowering the advantages of local wisdom in each Village Librar

    Learning from positive deviants to improve the quality and safety of healthcare.

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    Every day around the globe, patients are harmed within healthcare organisations. Attempts to improve the quality and safety of healthcare traditionally focus on past errors and harm, yet there is little evidence of widespread improvement. In contrast, the positive deviance approach seeks to identify and learn from those who demonstrate exceptional performance despite facing the same constraints as others. Bradley et al. (2009) have proposed a four stage process to apply positive deviance within healthcare organisations: 1) positive deviants are identified using routinely collected data; 2) hypotheses are generated about how they succeed; 3) these are tested within representative samples; and 4)the successful strategies are disseminated. Despite this, limited guidance exists to support applications. This thesis sought to test a robust and pragmatic method for applying the positive deviance approach within multidisciplinary healthcare teams. Study 1 systematically reviewed the methods used to apply positive deviance within healthcare. Previous applications identified positively deviant organisations or individuals and focused on narrow outcomes or processes of care. Applications lacked quality and used extensive resources. Study 2 analysed NHS Safety Thermometer data to identify five positively deviant and five matched comparison elderly medical wards. In the main, staff and patient perceptions of safety on these wards supported their identification. During study 3, multidisciplinary staff focus groups were conducted to explore how these wards delivered exceptionally safe care. In total, 14 behaviours and cultures were hypothesised to facilitate positive deviance at ward level. Study 4 assessed the feasibility of applying positive deviance within a general practice setting. Findings highlighted challenges of selecting data to identify positive deviants, recruiting general practices to participate, and generating hypotheses about success strategies that were unique to positive deviants yet common among them. In combination, these studies generated guidance to support rigorous applications of the positive deviance approach within healthcare organisations. The evidence suggested that, in the future, it may be possible to improve the quality and safety of care by focusing on those that demonstrate exceptional rather than poor outcomes of care

    Daerah Positive Deviance sebagai Rekomendasi Model Perbaikan Gizi

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    Penelitianà ini bertujuan untuk memperbaiki status gizi Balita dengan penerapan model daerah positive deviance atau daerah yang mempunyai kesenjangan antara keadaan status gizi dengan keadaanà lingkungannya, dan mendapatkan pemetaan daerahà à à positiveà devianceà antaraà statusà gizià Balita danà lingkungannya. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif dan kualitatif, dengan teknik purposif danà snow ballà sampling.à Simpulan dari penelitianà inià adalah: (1) peta daerahà positiveà devianceà antaraà statusà gizi danà lingkungan di Kabupatenà Boyolalià adalahà daerahà yang mempunyaià kesenjanganà antaraà keadaan status gizinya dengan keadaanà lingkungannya, terdapat di wilayah Puskesmas Karanggede dan Puskesmas Juwangi, (2) hasil penelitian model daerah positive deviance, yang direkomendasikan dalamà jangka pendek adalah dengan memberdayakanà potensi masyarakatà terutamaà dalam à bidangà sosialà budaya,à yang meliputi aspek organisasi kemasyarakatan, pengetahuan dan bahasa, mata pencaharian, serta teknologi dan peralatan. à à Abstract This research aimed to improve nutritional status of toddler by applying positive devianceà areas modelà andà toà establishà aà pilot model à ofà positiveà devianceà areas mapping between positive deviance good nutritional à statuses ofà toddler andà the vulnerable nutritional status of toddler in Boyolali District. This study used quantitative and qualitative approaches, with purposive sampling and snow ball sampling technique. Conclusions of this study were (1) map of positive deviance regionbetween nutritionalà status andà environmental Boyolali district, which wasà in 2 areas namely Karanggede andà Juwangi health center,à (2)à theà short-term recommended model were improving nutritional status by empowering the people who possess the potential, especially in social and culture, which include aspects of social organization, knowledge and language, occupation, as well as technology and equipment. Keywords: Nutrition; Positive deviance; Environmen

    Analisis Upaya Pemberdayaan Masyarakat oleh Bidan Desa melalui Pendekatan Positive Deviance pada Perbaikan Gizi Balita di Kabupaten Bojonegoro Tahun 2013

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    Universitas Diponegoro Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat Program Magister Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat Konsentrasi Kesehatan Ibu dan Anak 2015 ABSTRAK Maya Primayanti Analisis Upaya Pemberdayaan Masyarakat oleh Bidan Desa melalui Pendekatan Positive Deviance pada Perbaikan Gizi Balita di Kabupaten Bojonegoro Tahun 2013 xvii + 257 halaman + 9 tabel + 4 gambar + 16 lampiran Pada akhir tahun 2012, 56,27% desa di Kabupaten Bojonegoro melakukan pemberdayaan melalui positive deviance (PD). Namun, penurunan presentase balita gizi kurang dan gizi buruk tidak dapat dipertahankan. Tujuan penelitian menganalisis upaya pemberdayaan masyarakat oleh bidan desa melalui pendekatan positive deviance pada perbaikan gizi balita di Kabupaten Bojonegoro. Penelitian dilakukan secara kualitatif. Informan utama 8 bidan desa (4 bidan desa PD kriteria baik dan 4 bidan desa PD kriteria kurang baik) dan informan triangulasi 28 orang (8 kader PD, 8 perangkat desa, 8 ibu balita dan 4 petugas gizi). Data dikumpulkan dengan teknik wawancara mendalam. Pengolahan dan analisis data menggunakan analisis isi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan upaya pemberdayaan masyarakat oleh bidan desa PD kriteria kurang baik belum optimal dibandingkan PD kriteria baik. Hal ini berkaitan dengan : 1) bidan belum mengupayakan kader meningkatkan partisipasi ibu balita sampai membawa kontribusi bahan makanan dan membantu memasak, 2) pemimpin desa kurang memotivasi dan menggerakkan partisipasi masyarakat, 3) bidan belum memanfaatkan organisasi masyarakat desa sepenuhnya untuk meningkatkan partisipasi masyarakat, 4) bidan belum mengupayakan kader melakukan penyelidikan PD untuk mencari role model sebagai dasar pembuatan menu dan pemberian pesan kesehatan, 5) mobilisasi sumberdaya kurang dalam hal dana swadaya masyarakat atau ADD, serta keaktifan semua kader, 6) kemitraan bidan dengan perangkat desa dan kader belum didukung SK PD dan kesepakatan yang saling menguntungkan, 7) bidan belum mengupayakan kader melakukan evaluasi PD sampai kunjungan rumah, serta tidak ada supervisi rutin dan penilaian/umpan balik pelaksanaan PD dari petugas gizi. Disimpulkan bahwa pelaksanaan PD belum berkelanjutan sesuai harapan. Diperlukan kerjasama semua pihak dalam mewujudkan program tersebut. Disarankan kepada Dinas Kesehatan untuk melakukan pelatihan PD bagi bidan dan kader, serta penempatan tenaga gizi sesuai kompetensi. Disarankan kepada puskesmas untuk meningkatkan komitmen perangkat desa dan pemberian insentif kader. Kata Kunci : Pemberdayaan Masyarakat, Positive Deviance, Perbaikan Gizi Balita Pustaka : 63 (1983-2013) Diponegoro University Faculty of Public Health MasterÔÇÖs Program in Public Health Majoring in Maternal and Child Health 2015 ABSTRACT Maya Primayanti Effort Analysis of Community Empowerment by Village Midwife through Positive Deviance Approach in Improving Nutrition of Children under Five years old in Bojonegoro District in 2013 xvii + 257 pages + 9 tables + 4 figures + 16 enclosures In the end of 2012, 56.27% of villages in Bojonegoro District had empowered community using positive deviance (PD) approach. However, a decreasing percentage of severely and moderately malnourished children under five years old could not be maintained. The aim of this study was to analyse efforts of community empowerment by village midwife through PD approach in improving nutrition of children under five years old in Bojonegoro District. This was qualitative research. Main informants consisted of eight village midwives (4 midwives with good PD and 4 midwives with bad PD). Meanwhile, 28 persons (8 cadres of PD, 8 village officials, 8 mothers of children under five years old, and 4 nutritionists) were as informants for triangulation purpose. Data were collected using indepth interview method. Furthermore, data were analysed using content analysis. The results of this study showed that efforts of community empowerment conducted by village midwives with bad PD had not been optimal compared to those with good PD. Some reasons for this problem were as follows: 1) midwives had not empowered cadres to increase participation of mothers of children under five years old in order to bring groceries and help cooking; 2) head of villages had not motivated and actuated participation of communities; 3) midwives had not fully utilised villagersÔÇÖ organisation to increase participation of community; 4) midwives had not empowered cadres to investigate PD for finding role model as a basis of making menu and providing health messages; 5) there was lack of resources mobilisation particularly in terms of self-funding or ADD and activeness of all cadres; 6) partnerships between midwives, village officials, and cadres had not been supported by decree of PD and mutual agreements; and 7) midwives had not empowered cadres in evaluating PD and visiting a house. In addition, there were no regular supervisions and feedback of PD implementation from nutritionists. In conclusion, the implementation of PD had not complied expectation. Therefore, cooperation with other sectors needs to be done to realise its program. District Health Office needs to conduct training of PD for midwives and cadres and place nutritionists in accordance with their competencies. Health centres need to improve commitment of village officials and provide incentive for cadres. Key Words : Community Empowerment, Positive Deviance, Improvement of Nutrition of Children under Five Years Bibliography : 63 (1983-2013
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