108 research outputs found

    Plant breeding from laboratories to fields

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    Genetic Diversity in Kayu Merah (Pterocarpus Indicus Willd) Populations Using Random Amplified Polymorphism Dna Marker

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    Kayu merah ( Pterocarpus indicus Willd) which listed as one of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species in the category Vulnerable (VU A1D) is naturally distributed throughout Indonesia included Java, Sulawesi, Maluku, Bali, East Nusa Tenggara, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular markers have been used to analyze the genetic diversity of six (6) natural populations of kayu merah from Seram Island, Manggarai Timur-Flores, Ngada-Flores, Soe-Timor Tengah Selatan, Kefamenanu-Timor Tengah Utara and Kupang. Ninety-nine (99) polymorphic loci were obtained from twelve RAPD primers. The mean of genetic diversity was 0.2024. Population with the highest genetic diversity was Soe (0.2925) and the lowest genetic diversity was Ngada (0.1212). The highest genetic distance among the populations was between Ngada and Kefamenanu (0.376), while the nearest genetic distance was between Ngada and Manggarai Timur (0.060). The informations resulted from this study are important to support the tree improvement and conservation programme of kayu mera

    Feeding a Growing Population--Feasibility of Leghemoglobin as Visual Marker for Facilitating Plant Genetics Based Nutritional Improvement

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    As the population continues to expand, it is becoming increasingly relevant to find sustainable and affordable sources of high-nutritional value food, specifically protein and fatty acids. One such crop of interest is Glycine max, commonly known as soybean. The leguminous plant is of high importance globally with its far-reaching economic applicability. Soybeans are a versatile crop with a wide-ranging habitat, making them a readily available food source. Besides their abundance, this crop is also one of the most economical sources of protein on the planet. With their already blanketed global reach, the introduction of improved genetics to facilitate improved nutritional quality in the soybean crop would be an asset to humanity as a whole. The commonplace nature of soybeans would likely facilitate the acceptance of improved soybean products. Soybean seeds enriched in omega-3 fatty acids, as well as leghemoglobin, would provide an invaluable addition to human health worldwide. The goal of the project is to increase levels of omega-3 fatty acid and nutritious protein content, through the employment of leghemoglobin as a visual marker for facilitating plant genetic improvement in soybeans. To date, leghemoglobin has not been tested for visual marker value, thus making the findings of this project novel. If successful, through improving availability of high-nutritional value food from plants, the project could be environmentally beneficial in improving the current production of protein via reduction of necessary land area and water usage when compared to conventional meat production. Soybean seeds enriched in omega-3 fatty acids, as well as leghemoglobin, would provide an added health benefit to consumers. In addition to soybeans specifically, having an effective visual marker to facilitate genetic improvement would be an asset to further development of more nutritional food products in general for a myriad of crop species. The project has the potential to have far-reaching impacts on the food, health, and agricultural industries

    Genomic evidence for genes encoding leucine-rich repeat receptors linked to resistance against the eukaryotic extra- and intracellular Brassica napus pathogens Leptosphaeria maculans and Plasmodiophora brassicae

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    © 2018 Stotz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.Genes coding for nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptors (NLRs) control resistance against intracellular (cell-penetrating) pathogens. However, evidence for a role of genes coding for proteins with LRR domains in resistance against extracellular (apoplastic) fungal pathogens is limited. Here, the distribution of genes coding for proteins with eLRR domains but lacking kinase domains was determined for the Brassica napus genome. Predictions of signal peptide and transmembrane regions divided these genes into 184 coding for receptor-like proteins (RLPs) and 121 coding for secreted proteins (SPs). Together with previously annotated NLRs, a total of 720 LRR genes were found. Leptosphaeria maculans-induced expression during a compatible interaction with cultivar Topas differed between RLP, SP and NLR gene families; NLR genes were induced relatively late, during the necrotrophic phase of pathogen colonization. Seven RLP, one SP and two NLR genes were found in Rlm1 and Rlm3/Rlm4/Rlm7/Rlm9 loci for resistance against L. maculans on chromosome A07 of B. napus. One NLR gene at the Rlm9 locus was positively selected, as was the RLP gene on chromosome A10 with LepR3 and Rlm2 alleles conferring resistance against L. maculans races with corresponding effectors AvrLm1 and AvrLm2, respectively. Known loci for resistance against L. maculans (extracellular hemi-biotrophic fungus), Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (necrotrophic fungus) and Plasmodiophora brassicae (intracellular, obligate biotrophic protist) were examined for presence of RLPs, SPs and NLRs in these regions. Whereas loci for resistance against P. brassicae were enriched for NLRs, no such signature was observed for the other pathogens. These findings demonstrate involvement of (i) NLR genes in resistance against the intracellular pathogen P. brassicae and a putative NLR gene in Rlm9-mediated resistance against the extracellular pathogen L. maculans.Peer reviewe

    Drought Stress Response in Agricultural Plants: A Case Study of Common Bean (<em>Phaseolus vulgaris</em> L.)

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    Drought is one of the major threats to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), affecting its growth and productivity and, thus, contributing to considerable losses in yield in many regions worldwide. The development of varieties tolerant of drought stress has, therefore, become one of the primary goals in many common bean breeding programs. Plants have developed various mechanisms of their adaptation, to a greater or lesser extent, to drought. These are expressed, on the molecular level, by changes of gene expression and of protein content, together with responses at physiological and morphological levels. The response of common bean to drought is still not sufficiently well characterized due to its genetic complexity and its diverse, often ambiguous, phenotypic effects. Understanding these mechanisms is thus of fundamental importance for developing varieties that are better adapted to such stress conditions. In this chapter, we present research that provides an insight into the morpho-physiological adaptation and its underlying molecular changes in common bean plants exposed to drought. We include our contribution to establishing the basis for breeding of common bean with greater tolerance to this abiotic stress that uses molecular markers and identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs)

    Recolecta, establecimiento y caracterización de semilla de higuerilla (Ricinus communis L.) en el altiplano centro-norte de México

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    Objective: To evaluate growth, development, yield and characterization of the seed produced by 20 seed collections of castor bean gathered from Aguascalientes, Jalisco, San Luis Potosí and Zacatecas, Mexico. Design/methodology/approach: Seed collected in each site was extracted and cleaned; then, the average size and weight were measured, and color was determined. Seeds were sown in bags, registering the days to emergence; when seedlings reached a 15-cm average height, they were transplanted to a plot in the community of Diego Martín, municipality of Salinas, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Results: The average number of clusters per plant was 26.8, and the average height of the plant was 2.95 m. Regarding the weight of 100 seeds, the average was 18.6 g, with a maximum value of 46.1 g for the seed collected at Salinas de Hidalgo, San Luis Potosí, which also presented the longest seed (15.7 mm). The most frequent background color of seed was gray, with dark brown spots on top. Concerning seedling emergence, the collected seeds called Francia Chica (100%) and Villa Hidalgo (94%) stood out. Limitations on study/implications: Wild plants commonly present a wide genetic variability, which makes necessary long-term studies to get more stable seed lines. Findings/conclusions: Seed collected in Salinas de Hidalgo, San Luis Potosí, excelled in some parameters such as size, weight and emergence.Objetivo: Evaluar el crecimiento, desarrollo y rendimiento de higuerilla, y caracterizar la semilla obtenida por 20 recolectas de higuerilla realizadas en los estados de Aguascalientes, Jalisco, San Luis Potosí y Zacatecas, México. Diseño/metodología/aproximación: Se hizo una extracción y limpieza de la semilla de cada recolecta, de la que se midió tamaño y peso promedios y se determinó su color. Se prepararon macetas para producir plántulas, registrando los días a emergencia y al alcanzar en promedio 15 cm de altura se trasplantaron en una parcela en la comunidad de Diego Martín, municipio de Salinas, San Luis Potosí, México. Resultados: El número promedio de racimos por planta fue 26.8 y la altura media de planta fue de 2.95 m. Con relación al peso de 100 semillas, el promedio fue de 18.6 g, con un valor máximo de 46.1 g para la recolecta de Salinas de Hidalgo, San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí, la que también presentó la semilla de mayor longitud (15.7 mm). El color más frecuente (moda) de fondo de la semilla fue el gris, con manchas café oscuro encima. En emergencia de las plántulas sobresalieron las colectas denominadas Francia Chica (100%) y Villa Hidalgo (94%). Limitaciones del estudio/implicaciones: Las plantas silvestres comúnmente presentan una amplia variabilidad genética, lo que hace necesarios los estudios a largo plazo para obtener líneas de semillas más estables. Hallazgos/conclusiones: Semillas recolectadas en Salinas de Hidalgo, S. L. P, sobresalieron en algunos parámetros, como tamaño, peso y emergencia

    Genetic diversity analysis of black pepper (Piper spp.) with RAPD markers

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    Black pepper is a well-known export commodity in Vietnam, but pepper production has been decreasing in recent years. The lack of knowledge about the origin and genetic characteristics of pepper varieties may create variety degradation and loss of product quality. Therefore, it is necessary to study the genetic diversity of existing local and imported pepper varieties and effectively propagate and create new varieties with high yields and quality. In this study, RAPD markers were used with 100 RAPD UBC primers to study genetic diversity. Twelve RAPD primers were selected to amplify 39 pepper cultivars, and 40 polymorphic DNA bands were created with sizes ranging from 200 to 1400 bp. Five of the 12 primers amplified all 39 cultivars. The genetic diversity of lines/cultivars in the pepper population is relatively high. The phylogenetic tree of the 39 cultivars has two branches showing similarity ranging from 41.8 to 51%. The first branch includes five pepper individuals, and the second consists of 34 individuals. There is a high diversity among the pepper cultivars in the same population

    Thermal imaging to phenotype traditional maize landraces for drought tolerance

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    Searching and identification of new crops or varieties with higher adaptation or resistance to water stress is one of the strategies to make agriculture profitable and more sustainable. Especially en arid and semi areas with limiting water resources. This study establishes a practical, fast and replicable protocol to select maize genotypes for its capability to respond to water stress. Eight Portuguese maize landraces (LD), traditionally grown in areas with different altitude and subjected to potentially different degrees of water stress (low altitude = potentially lower stress; high altitude = potentially higher stress) was used. Seedlings were subjected to continuous watering (FI) or forced to water withholding (non-irrigated) for a period of 7-8 days followed by re-watering (NI). Leaf temperature was determined every 48 h by thermal imaging and the temperature difference between NI and FI plants (ΔTNI-FI) was calculated. We found that those genotypes that traditionally had been grown at higher altitudes kept more stable leaf temperature values under dry or wet conditions (small ΔTNI-FI) even under severe water stress. These results will help to optimize a screening protocol for maize seedlings and select novel genotypes or LDs better adapted to water stress, especially in regions where irrigation water is scarce.Searching and identification of new crops or varieties with higher adaptation or resistance to water stress is one of the strategies to make agriculture profitable and more sustainable. Especially en arid and semi areas with limiting water resources. This study establishes a practical, fast and replicable protocol to select maize genotypes for its capability to respond to water stress. Eight Portuguese maize landraces (LD), traditionally grown in areas with different altitude and subjected to potentially different degrees of water stress (low altitude = potentially lower stress; high altitude = potentially higher stress) was used. Seedlings were subjected to continuous watering (FI) or forced to water withholding (non-irrigated) for a period of 7-8 days followed by re-watering (NI). Leaf temperature was determined every 48 h by thermal imaging and the temperature difference between NI and FI plants (ΔTNI-FI) was calculated. We found that those genotypes that traditionally had been grown at higher altitudes kept more stable leaf temperature values under dry or wet conditions (small ΔTNI-FI) even under severe water stress. These results will help to optimize a screening protocol for maize seedlings and select novel genotypes or LDs better adapted to water stress, especially in regions where irrigation water is scarce
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