2,219 research outputs found

    Race and Survival Bias in NBA Data

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    Cross sectional employment data is not random. Workers who survive to a longer level of tenure tend to have a higher level of productivity than those who exit earlier. Wage equations that use cross sectional data could be biased from the over sampling of high productive workers at long levels of tenure. The survival bias that arises in cross sectional data could possibly bias the coefficients in wage equations. This could lead to false positive conclusions concerning the presence of pay discrimination. Using 1989-2008 NBA data we explore the extent of survival bias in wage regressions in a setting in which worker productivity is extremely well documented through a variety of statistical measures. We then examined whether the survival bias affects the conclusions concerning racial pay discrimination. Key Words: NBA, survival bias, pay discrimination

    Gender pay discrimination in the hospitality industry in South Africa.

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    This article documents laws and codes of practice regulating pay discrimination in South Africa, as well as the applicable international laws pertaining to gender pay discrimination. The legal application of international law is explained and the practical application of international and domestic law pertaining to gender pay discrimination is discussed. Gender pay discrimination is particularly rife in the hospitality industry, given the prevalence of sex-typed jobs and the resulting intensified relevance of gender pay discrimination to be found there. Gender inequality is generally based on archaic notions of male superiority and other similar, highly conservative and fallacious notions. It is clear that gender stereotyping and other unfair notions are precluding women from breaking “glass ceilings” in the industry – something that is ironic given that the majority of employees in hospitality are, in any event, women. Women should be assisted to address work–life balance and to have equal opportunity for upward mobility in the industry. The practical advantages and better access to justice relating to such issues that have arisen as a consequence of recent amendments to South African legislation are discussed.Graduate School of Business Leadership (SBL

    Pay discrimination revisiting the concept and international perspectives

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    Sex based wage discrimination has received much attention especially in the late seventies and throughout the eighties. South Africa has had pay equality provisions in place since 1980 and specific legislation in 1988. Although no comprehensive gender based wage study exist prior to 1980, international surveys in those countries indicates that large wage gaps between the income of men and women existed. This paper deals with possible reasons for gender bias perceptions and historical perceptions. The international perspective is dealt with on a comparative basis and possible reasons for success and failures are addressed. The previous government's race discrimination policies had direct bearing; not only on the race disparities but on sex based wage inequality. Black people were barred from occupying certain positions in the public service. Black women were, therefore, effectively prevented from entering the higher income job market. This resulted in a concentration of black women in the lower income categories of work ie, domestic and home related work. To measure the pay inequality, one has to have a comparator and this sometimes proves to be difficult. Women being concentrated in, for instance domestic jobs, have no male comparator to prove the existence of sex discrimination. The tendency throughout the world is for employers to concentrate women into a job category and rate that specific job low, thereby paving the way for lower wages. A directive was introduced by the Treaty of Rome whereby equal remuneration for jobs of equal value was to be enforced. Women were put in a position to challenge the neutrality of a job evaluation systems. In terms thereof women could challenge the pay structure by challenging the gender neutrality of the job evaluation study. The vital elements in conducting an action of this nature are discussed in the South African paradigm with reference to foreign experiences. Although no specific equal pay legislation exists, the Labour Relations Act of 1995, prohibits direct and indirect sex discrimination. This legislation is in line with international criteria and it is submitted that the prohibition includes equal pay for work of equal value. The defences raised by employers in foreign countries are discussed, although the applicability thereof remains uncertain. The Green Paper of Employment and Occupational Equity has been published. The Equal Pay issue has been identified as requiring attention. Interviews with NALEDI have indicated that the issues still have to be formalised before negotiations between trade unions, employers and the government are to commence. The international arena has provided a fruitful setting for gender equality, and although the success has been limited, we expect South Africa to draw from the experiences. Legislation in this regard is not expected before the later part of 1998. There are many academics, feminists and gender equality activists eagerly awaiting the publication of the Employment and Occupational Equity Act. Some points are made which are vital for effective legislation. On the other hand, the ineffectively of legislation in this field has been proved repeatedly in other countries

    Unions and the Sword of Justice: Unions and Pay Systems, Pay Inequality, Pay Discrimination and Low Pay

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    Dispersion in pay is lower among union members than among non-unionists. This reflects two factors. First, union members and jobs are more homogeneous than their non-union counterparts. Second, union wage policies within and across firms lower pay dispersion. Unions' minimum wage targets also truncate the lower tail of the union distribution. There are two major consequences of these egalitarian union wage policies. First, the return to human capital is lower in firms which recognise unions than in the unorganised sector. Second, unions compress the wage structure by gender, race and occupation.Unions, pay distribution, discrimination

    Gender pay discrimination in the hospitality industry in South Africa.

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    This article documents laws and codes of practice regulating pay discrimination in South Africa, as well as the applicable international laws pertaining to gender pay discrimination. The legal application of international law is explained and the practical application of international and domestic law pertaining to gender pay discrimination is discussed. Gender pay discrimination is particularly rife in the hospitality industry, given the prevalence of sex-typed jobs and the resulting intensified relevance of gender pay discrimination to be found there. Gender inequality is generally based on archaic notions of male superiority and other similar, highly conservative and fallacious notions. It is clear that gender stereotyping and other unfair notions are precluding women from breaking “glass ceilings” in the industry – something that is ironic given that the majority of employees in hospitality are, in any event, women. Women should be assisted to address work–life balance and to have equal opportunity for upward mobility in the industry. The practical advantages and better access to justice relating to such issues that have arisen as a consequence of recent amendments to South African legislation are discussed

    Understanding socio-demographic disparities in the labor market : the case for a motivation-based theory

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    This paper puts the empirical case for a motivation-based theory of socio-demographic disparities in the labor market. We first present the basic knowledge as regards earnings disparities in the labor market and sum up the classic assessment of the theoretical literature focusing on pure pay discrimination. We then make an attempt to demonstrate that the relevant issues as regards socio-demographic disparities in the labor market, are rather hiring discrimination and, above all, occupational segregation. In this spirit, we have provided in an early work a motivation-based theory of hiring discrimination suggesting a particular pattern of socio-demographic occupational segregation. We check what our model suggests both against statistical and micro evidence. We end with a discussion of the links between our approach and dominant existing theories.Occupational segregation, hiring discrimination, earnings gap

    Missing the Forest for the Trees: Gender Pay Discrimination in Academia

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    Women in virtually every job category still make less than men. Academia is no exception. This Article will explore some of the structural explanations for this continued disparity and the continued resistance to seriously confronting those structural barriers to equality. Using the still-unfolding story of a charge of discrimination filed against a university, this Article examines the script that has become all-too-familiar in discussions about the gender pay gap, whether in academia or elsewhere. The basic storyline in pay discrimination litigation is this: Evidence is presented about the existence of a gap between men\u27s earnings and women\u27s earnings. The response is that the numbers cannot be looked at as a group because there are individual explanations for each pay decision. With this move, the focus of attention is shifted from an evaluation of the troubling structural picture to an evaluation of an individual employee. Until we are willing to resist that shift, it will be nearly impossible to address the root causes of continued pay inequity

    Missing the Forest for the Trees: Gender Pay Discrimination in Academia

    Get PDF
    Women in virtually every job category still make less than men. Academia is no exception. This Article will explore some of the structural explanations for this continued disparity and the continued resistance to seriously confronting those structural barriers to equality. Using the still-unfolding story of a charge of discrimination filed against a university, this Article examines the script that has become all-too-familiar in discussions about the gender pay gap, whether in academia or elsewhere. The basic storyline in pay discrimination litigation is this: Evidence is presented about the existence of a gap between men\u27s earnings and women\u27s earnings. The response is that the numbers cannot be looked at as a group because there are individual explanations for each pay decision. With this move, the focus of attention is shifted from an evaluation of the troubling structural picture to an evaluation of an individual employee. Until we are willing to resist that shift, it will be nearly impossible to address the root causes of continued pay inequity

    Missing the Forest for the Trees: Gender Pay Discrimination in Academia

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    Are all migrants really worse off in urban labour markets: new empirical evidence from China.

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    The rapid and massive increase in rural-to-urban worker flows to the coast of China has drawn recent attention to the welfare of migrants working in urban regions, particularly to their working conditions and pay; serious concern is raised regarding pay discrimination against rural migrants. This paper uses data from a random draw of the 2005 Chinese national census survey to shed more light on the discrimination issue, by making comparisons of earnings and the sector of work between rural migrants on one hand, and urban residents and urban migrants on the other. Contrary to popular belief, we find no earnings discrimination against rural migrants compared to urban residents. However, rural migrants are found to be discriminated in terms of the sector in which they work, with a vast majority working in the informal sector lacking adequate social protection.Migration, China, Discrimination, Informal Employment
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