2,353 research outputs found

    Population and Reproductive Health in National Adaptation Programs of Action

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    This paper reviews 41 National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) submitted by Least Developed Countries (LDCs) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and identifies the range of interventions included in countries' priority adaptation actions. The review found near-universal recognition among the NAPAs of the importance of population considerations as a central pillar in climate change adaptation

    Assessing African National Adaptation Programmes of Action: Giving a Voice to the Voiceless

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    ABSTRACT The earth continues to experience climate change. Although it is occurring worldwide, the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) are particularly in danger from various adverse consequences due to their low adaptive capability. In order to assist LDCs prepare for climate change, the United Nations (UN) established the National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs). Part of the rationale behind the creation of the NAPAs was to help LDCs prepare for climate change effects, while protecting the poor and using sound environmental management. To date, 47 LDCs have submitted NAPAs to the UN, from which 32 are African LDCs. Prior to this research, a gap existed in the literature determining how the NAPAs are addressing the needs of the poor and biodiversity preservation. Because the African continent has been identified as being particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, this research focuses on the 32 NAPAs submitted by African LDCs. The 32 African NAPAs were assessed using a matrix with criteria reflecting literature-based best practices both for adaptation plans, specifically and plans, generally. This matrix serves as an evaluative tool for the NAPAs to determine how they are addressing the needs of the poor and biodiversity preservation; it can also serve as an evaluative tool for other adaptation plans. The research reveals several implications for the UN NAPA guidelines. In order for them to better address the needs of the impoverished and biodiversity preservation, they need to further balance flexibility within the guidelines to reflect local needs and additional requirements to ensure that countries incorporate the various methods that have been identified in the literature as best practices to address climate change

    Do You Know About the ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention?

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    This document is part of a digital collection provided by the Martin P. Catherwood Library, ILR School, Cornell University, pertaining to the effects of globalization on the workplace worldwide. Special emphasis is placed on labor rights, working conditions, labor market changes, and union organizing.ASI_2001_CL_Switzerland_Do_you_know.pdf: 39 downloads, before Oct. 1, 2020

    International healthcare worker migration in Asia Pacific: International policy responses

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    The growth of the international migration of health workers in recent decades has taken place in the context of the transnationalisation of healthcare provision as well as of governance and policy responses. This paper examines international policy responses to cross-border health worker migration in the Asia Pacific region. These include multilateral (global and regional) and bilateral policy agreements, policy dialogue and programmes of action in relation to key issues of ethical recruitment, ‘circular’ migration and labour rights and key themes of health workforce planning and management. The paper brings original new analysis of international datasets and secondary data to bear on the pressing and important questions of what international policy initiatives and responses are at work in the Asia Pacific region, and what these mean for the nature of migration governance in the region. The paper's focus routes the evidence and argument towards current research and policy debates about the relationship between health worker migration, health worker shortages and poor health outcomes. In this, the paper brings new insights into the analysis of the international policy ‘universe’ through its emphasis on multiple and intersecting cross-border institutions, initiatives and actors operating across different scales. Coherent national and international strategies for integrated health worker migration governance and policy need to incorporate these insights, and the paper considers their implications for current strategies to attain universal health care and improved health outcomes in Asia Pacific and beyond

    Climate vulnerability, impacts and adaptation in Central and South America coastal areas

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    © 2019 Elsevier B.V. Low-Elevation Coastal Zones in Central and South America are exposed to climate-related hazards (sea-level rise, climate variability and storms) which threaten the assets (people, resources, ecosystems, infrastructure, and the services they provide), and are expected to increase due to climate change. A non-systematic review is presented focusing on vulnerability elements, impacts, constraints to adaptation, and their possible strategies. The analysis emphasises the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Reasons for Concern (e.g., threatened systems, extreme events, aggregated impacts, and critical thresholds), particularly on sea-level rise, degradation of mangroves, and invasive alien species in Central and South America focusing on case studies from Uruguay and Venezuela. Despite recent advances in coastal adaptation planning in Central and South America, there is an adaptation deficit in the implementation of measures and strategies against climate-related hazards, such as sea-level rise. Adaptation constraints are linked with poverty, resource allocation, lack of political will, and lack of early warning systems for climate-related hazards. Non-structural adaptation measures such as community-based adaptation and ecosystem-based adaptation are not fully mainstreamed into national plans yet. Government-level initiatives (e.g. National Adaptation Programmes of Action) are being developed, but a few are already implemented. In addition to specific thematic measures, the implementation of non-structural approaches, National Adaptation Programmes of Action and early warning systems, based on the reasons for concern, should foster adaptive capacity in coastal areas

    Adaptation to Climate Change in Poverty Reduction Strategies

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    human development, climate change

    Climate Refugees Require Relocation Assistance: Guaranteeng Adequate Land Assets Through Treaties Based on the National Adaptation Programmes of Action

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    Rising ocean levels in the South Pacific threaten thousands of inhabitants with displacement. Many of these small Pacific island states lack available land to internally accommodate displaced individuals. Thus, thousands of “climate refugees” will be forced to move off their island homes and, without provisions of adequate land rights, will most likely end up in refugee camps in other countries. Climate change exemplifies an inherently global challenge. Developed countries produce disproportionately more greenhouse gases, and developing countries lack resources to adequately respond to climatic displacement. International treaties establish a legal responsibility to assist developing states adapt to climate change. However, these treaties inadequately provide support to vulnerable Pacific states like Kiribati, a low-lying South Pacific island nation. The Kiribati-United States Friendship Treaty, the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme Agreement, and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change all suggest legal responsibilities for the United States and other developed states to assist Kiribati’s climate adaptation efforts, but each treaty regime ultimately fails to elicit international response because the terms are vague and lack enforcement mechanisms. A future treaty regime based on the National Adaptation Programmes of Action must establish a system to respond to climatic displacement by creating adequate land rights provisions

    Tackling climate change through adaptation finance in the Least Developed Countries: Is the LDC Fund still fit for purpose?

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    This paper considers the challenges confronting LDCs in meeting the adaptation and mitigation requirements brought on by the climate crisis and addresses the question as to whether the Least Developed Country Fund (LDCF), which is a key source of LDC climate adaptation finance, is still fit for purpose?climate change; least developed countries; climate finance; adaptation; mitigation; sustainable development
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