1,305,711 research outputs found

    The Effects of Nutrition Package Claims, Nutrition Facts Panels, and Motivation to Process Nutrition Information on Consumer Product Evaluations

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    In a laboratory experiment using a between-subjects design, the authors examine the effects on nutrition and product evaluations of nutrition claims made (e.g., 99% fat free; low in calories ) on a product package, product nutrition value levels, and enduring motivation to process nutrition information. Enduring motivation is shown to moderate the effects of product nutrition value on consumer evaluations. Also, nutrition claims interact with product nutrition value in affecting consumer perceptions of manufacturer credibility. Given the availability of nutrient levels in the Nutrition Facts panel on the back of the mock package, nutrition claims on the front of the package generally did not affect positively consumers\u27 overall product and purchase intention evaluations. The authors discuss some implications of these findings, suggestions for further research, and study limitations

    A Study Report On Infant Feeding Practices In The Context Of\ud HIV / AIDS

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    \ud \ud This report presents the findings of a study on infant feeding practices in the context of HIV/AIDS in Tanzania. The study was undertaken from 8th – 24th August 2004 in 3 regions implementing PMTCT activities namely Kagera, Mbeya and Kilimanjaro. In each region, two PMTCT and one Non-PMTCT implementing districts were involved. The study population included mothers of infants who are HIV negative, infected and those of unknown status. Others were health service providers dealing with mothers and children, men and women of reproductive age and key informants. A total of 471 and 95 mothers with their infants were interviewed in PMTCT and Non-PMTCT sites respectively. Also 211 health service providers and 16 key informants were interviewed. HIV positive and negative mothers were selected purposively whereas those of unknown status were selected randomly. The quantitative data from mothers and health workers were collected by using structured questionnaires. A checklist was used to collect qualitative data from key informants such as TBAs, CBOs, FBOs, VHWs and VGLs. Another checklist was also used for facilitation of focus group discussion which involved men and women of reproductive age. In addition, secondary data from various sources were collected. The collected data were edited manually before being captured using excel, cleaned and finally transferred into SPSS version 10 for analysis. The results show that mean age of the interviewed mothers was 25 years and 62.4% of them had more than one child. Most mothers (87.3%) were married and (76.7%) were primary school leavers. There were 40% housewives. Proportion of mothers who delivered at health facility was 76.6%. Many of health service providers interviewed were Nurse Midwives, (45.5%) and nursing officers (21.3%). As regard to knowledge about breastfeeding, 50% of mothers were able to recognize its nutritional role and 34% knew the importance of colostrums. About breastfeeding initiation, 67.5 percent of mothers reported that it is recommended to start within an hour after delivery. However, a small proportion of mothers (2.5%) and (2.7%) appreciated the advantage of exclusive breastfeeding in relation to family planning and reducing the risk of MTCT of HIV respectively. Furthermore, 34.5% of mothers mentioned appropriate age for complementation as 4-6 months, where as 32.0% mentioned at 6 months. On the other hand, 24.6% of mothers reported to complement their infants at the age below 4 months. Complementary food given were named as maize porridge (40%), Lishe porridge 2.5% and cow’s milk 24%. Findings also show that frequency of feedingfor infants aged 6-9 months as mentioned by 39.8% of mothers was 3 times. However, there were 31.3% mothers who fed their infants 1-2 times a day. With regard to infant aged 10-12 months, the data show that 29.9% and 26.3 percent are fed 3 and 4 times a day respectively. Moreover, 6.0 percent of mothers did not know feeding frequency for infants aged 6-9 months and 9.2% of them were not aware of feeding frequency of infants aged 10-12 months. As regards to knowledge of mothers on MTCT of HIV, most of the mothers (over 90%), were aware that there is a possibility of MTCT of HIV. The awareness was high (over 90%) among the HIB +ve and HIV-ve mothers within the PMTCT sites. The risk was equally known by majority of mothers even in non-PMTCT sites. The findings also show that 57% of mothers that the commonest mode of MTCT of HIV is through breastfeeding. Generally in both PMTCT and non PMTCT sites MTCT of HIV through breastfeeding was the way known by many mothers. Among the mentioned factors that increase the risk of MTCT of HIV were breastfeeding exposure (35.2%), and breast conditions (25.1%). Other factors were sharing clothes between infant and mother; mothers’ spits and sweat on the breast during breast-feeding. However, re-infection with HIV and poor breastfeeding technique were less known as they were mentioned factors by 0.3 and 3.6 percent of mothers respectively. Ways of reducing MTCT of HIV as mentioned by mothers were replacement feeding (62.3%) and avoiding the infants to suckle on a breast with some spits and sweat (16.6%). On the other hand 3.2% of mothers were not aware about any way of reducing MTCT of HIV. However, 1.7 percent and 3.6 percent knew that EBF and ARV respectively could reduce the risk. In PMTCT sites both HIV infected (69%) and non infected (89%) mothers breastfed their infants soon after delivery. HIV positive mothers who reported to give their infants replacement feed soon after delivery were only 4.8%. The proportion of infants fed on breast milk after delivery was as high 81.1% even among mothers with unknown status. On top of that the findings also show that health service providers are the important source of information on infant feeding to mothers. They are depended by almost 70% of mothers and their influence as reported by mothers is very high (60.6%). Family members were also mentioned as other source of information. The main constraints as regard to infant feeding as reported by HIV infected mothers were the refusal of infants to eat other foods, insufficient breast milk and women heavy workload. However, majority of them (71.7%) did not report way constraint. In additional, the findings revealed that infant feeding counseling was given to majority (76.1%) of HIV infected mothers and only few (24.9%) of HIV negative women. About49.6% of HIV infected women were counseled on infant feeding option during pregnancy. Those counseled during and after delivery were 21.8% and 28.6% respectively. The most preferred infant feeding option was early cessation of breast feeding, as it was used by 55.7% of HIV positive women. Other women (17.1 and 14.3%) used exclusive breastfeeding for six months and commercial infant formula respectively. Affordability of infant feeding option was the main motivation (22.9%) to choose and use the said option, as compared to HIV transmission risk reduction (11.0%). Majority of HIV infected mothers (58.7%) reported to face no constraint as regard to implementation of infant feeding option. However, some of them (12%) mentioned stigma from family and community members as a major constraint to successful implementation of infant feeding option of their choice. Some health service providers (26.5%) mentioned the 4-6 months duration of exclusive breastfeeding and 46.4% mentioned the WHO / UNICEF recommended duration of 6 months. Furthermore, 13% of HSP were unable to demonstrate proper positioning and attachment of a baby on the breast, and 0.9% were not ware of the appropriate age for complementation. The findings further show that Few HSP in PMTCT (23%) were aware that there is a possibility of MTCT of HIV during pregnancy. On top of that there were (32.9%) of HSP in PMTCT aware of the increased risk of MTCT of HIV were due to breast conditions, only (4%) of HSP recognized the risk of MTCT associated with poor positioning and attachment of baby on breast. Furthermore, 44% of HSP in PMTCT sites were trained on infant feeding in the context of HIV/AIDS. With regards to infant feeding options 21.3% of The HSP in PMTCT sites mentioned exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months 29.5% mentioned early cessation of breastfeeding. Home prepared infant formula 20.7% and commercial infant formula was given by 15%. According to HSP in PMTCT sites, the main constraints faced by HIV infected mothers when implementing IFO are stigma (51.1%), avoiding to be known by other family members that they are HIV positive (20%), and switching from one option to another without consultation (22%). Overall, the study findings show that there is limitation in terms of knowledge and skills on breastfeeding, complementation and infant feeding options among HSP and mothers. More training, sensitization and media campaigns on infant feeding are needed. Counseling services on infant feeding option need to be strengthened. Also more research need to be conducted to explore the risk of MTCT transmission of HIV through the various existing mode of infant feeding among HIV infected mothers.\u

    Climate change, food and nutrition policies in Uganda: Are they gender- and nutrition-sensitive?

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    This brief draws attention to some gaps in the mainstreaming of gender and nutrition in climate change, and food and nutrition-related policy documents, which may affect the effective implementation of nutrition-focused actions and the realization of improved nutrition outcomes

    Self-reported nutritional status, executive functions, and cognitive flexibility in adults

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    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between nutrition status, executive cognitive functions, and cognitive flexibility; and to analyze the role of gender, age, and nutrition status in the prediction of executive cognitive functions and cognitive flexibility in a sample of Iranian adults. Background. This study is based on the hierarchy of needs, health beliefs, developmental, cognitive and psychophysiological conceptualizations of nutrition and their plausible influences on human cognitive functions and cognitive flexibility. Materials and Methods. The randomly selected sample consisted of 200 adult participants (M=99 and F=101) from Eghlid City, the north of Fars province, Iran. A demographic questionnaire, the Nutrition Assessment Inventory (NAI), the Amsterdam Executive Function Inventory (AEFI), and the Cognitive Flexibility Scale (CFS) were used. Results. Findings showed significant positive relationships between healthy nutrition (diet-oriented nutrition and high fat foods subscales of Nutrition Assessment Inventory), the evaluation coping subscale, and the total score of Cognitive Flexibility Inventory. In addition, age and nutritional status had a significant impact with regards to predicting cognitive flexibility and executive cognitive functions. Conclusions. Given the significant positive relationship between nutrition status and cognitive flexibility, and the role of gender and nutrition status on executive cognitive functions and mental flexibility, this study may offer beneficial approaches for nutrition and cognitive health programs by clinicians and health education professionals

    Water and Nutrition: Harmonizing actions for the United Nations Decade of Action on Nutrition and the United Nations Water Action Decade

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    Progress for both SDG 2 and SDG 6 has been unsatisfactory, with several indicators worsening over time, including an increase in the number of undernourished, overweight and obese people, as well as rapid increases in the number of people at risk of severe water shortages. This lack of progress is exacerbated by climate change and growing regional and global inequities in food and water security, including access to good quality diets, leading to increased violation of the human rights to water and food. Reversing these trends will require a much greater effort on the part of water, food security, and nutrition communities, including stronger performances by the United Nations Decade of Action on Nutrition and the United Nations International Decade for Action on Water for Sustainable Development. To date, increased collaboration by these two landmark initiatives is lacking, as neither work program has systematically explored linkages or possibilities for joint interventions. Collaboration is especially imperative given the fundamental challenges that characterize the promotion of one priority over another. Without coordination across the water, food security, and nutrition communities, actions toward achieving SDG2 on zero hunger may contribute to further degradation of the world’s water resources and as such, further derail achievement of the UN Decade of Action on Water and SDG 6 on water and sanitation. Conversely, actions to enhance SDG 6 may well reduce progress on the UN Decade of Action on Nutrition and SDG 2. This paper reviews these challenges as part of a broader analysis of the complex web of pathways that link water, food security and nutrition outcomes. Climate change and the growing demand for water resources are also considered, given their central role in shaping future water and nutrition security. The main conclusions are presented as three recommendations focused on potential avenues to deal with the complexity of the water-nutrition nexus, and to optimize outcomes

    Nutrition knowledge of high school senior students in Northwest Arkansas

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    Though there are many complex factors influencing diet, nutrition knowledge correlates with healthier food choices in older adolescents and can play a pivotal role in health. Nutrition curriculum was addressed in the state of Arkansas through Arkansas Act 1220 of 2003. Numerous changes have been seen in the school environment regarding nutrition, but there is no means of testing nutrition curriculum effectiveness in terms of nutrition knowledge of students. It is the purpose of this descriptive study to improve understanding of the nutrition knowledge of high school seniors. High school senior students (n = 25; males = 12, females = 13) successfully completed a validated Survey to Assess the Knowledge of Conventional and Unconventional Dietary Methods of Weight Control based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010. The survey also included demographic questions and items regarding sources of nutrition information. The mean nutrition knowledge score (out of 24) was 8.7 ± 2.8 or 36% (min. score = 4, max. score = 14). There was no significant difference in nutrition knowledge scores based on ethnicity, those on specialized diets, frequency of eating out, physical activity, gender, source of nutrition information, thoughts about food, or for any criteria based categorizing scores by High/Low. Though the study indicates better education is needed, this pilot test should be followed up with a larger sample size to confirm these results

    Nutrition and Trade Liberalization in Africa

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    Trade openness and nutrition are concepts that are closely related. Openness could contribute to an improvement in nutrition under only certain conditions. These include improved export earnings, ultimately the import capacity of the countries participating in the exchange, and maintaining a sufficient level of agricultural production. The objective of this article is to analyze the link between trade liberalization and nutrition in Africa. Trade openness and nutrition are concepts that are closely related. Openness could contribute to an improvement in nutrition under only certain conditions. These include improved export earnings, ultimately the import capacity of the countries participating in the exchange, and maintenance at a sufficient level of agricultural production. The objective of this article is to analyze the link between trade liberalization and nutrition in Africa

    An objective examination of consumer perception of nutrition information based on healthiness ratings

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    Objective. Previous research on nutrition labelling has mainly used subjective measures. This study examines the effectiveness of two types of nutrition label using two objective measures: eye movements and healthiness ratings. Design. Eye movements were recorded while participants made healthiness ratings for two types of nutrition label: standard and standard plus the Food Standards Agency’s ‘traffic light’ concept. Setting. University of Derby, UK. Subjects. 92 participants (mean age 31.5 years) were paid for their participation. None of the participants worked in the areas of food or nutrition. Results. For the standard nutrition label, participant eye movements lacked focus and their healthiness ratings lacked accuracy. The traffic light system helped to guide the attention of the consumer to the important nutrients and improved the accuracy of the healthiness ratings of nutrition labels. Conclusions. Consumer’s have a lack of knowledge regarding how to interpret nutrition information for standard labels. The traffic light concept helps to ameliorate this problem by indicating important nutrients to pay attention to

    Consumer understanding and nutritional communication: key issues in the context of the new EU legislation

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    Background Nutrition communication by means of nutrition and health claims and otherwise, holds the potential to contribute to public health by stimulating informed healthier food choices and enhanced healthfocussed competition in the market place, provided that the health messages are trustworthy (i.e. scientifically substantiated) and correctly used and interpreted by the consumer. Not surprisingly, these two considerations constitute the cornerstone of the new EU legislation on nutrition and health claims, in which evidence for consumer understanding of nutrition and health claims is a new requirement. Aim of the study To review some of the key issues in consumer understanding of nutritional communication as a basis for reflection on the consumer understanding element of the new EU legislation on nutrition and health claims. Conclusions There is a need for more methodologically advanced research in consumer understanding of nutrition and health claims as a basis for truly assessing the real-life use of such information and its actual effect on consumer food choices. Such approaches are pertinent in light of the evaluation and approval process of (new) nutrition and health claims as required under the new EU legislation on nutrition and health claims

    Is Simpler Always Better? Consumer Evaluations of Front-of-Package Nutrition Symbols

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    Consumers of packaged goods products in the United States recently have faced an onslaught of front-of-package (FOP) nutrition symbols and icons, including the controversial “Smart Choices” single summary indicator. In a between-subjects experiment with 520 adult consumers, the authors compare effects of the Smart Choices (SC) icon, the more complex Traffic Light–Guideline Daily Amounts (TLGDAs) icon, and a no-FOP icon control for a nutritionally moderate food that qualifies for the SC icon. Drawing from principles of heuristic processing and halo effects, the authors predict and find that the SC icon can lead to positive (and potentially misleading) nutrient evaluations and product healthfulness when compared with the TL-GDA icon or no-FOP icon control. When the Nutrition Facts Panel is not available, the TL-GDA icon results in substantially greater nutrition accuracy scores than with the SC icon or control. The authors also find that nutrition consciousness is more likely to moderate effects related to the Nutrition Facts Panel than the FOP nutrition icon information. Implications are offered for public health officials, nutrition researchers, and food manufacturers, as the Food and Drug Administration considers FOP nutrition alternatives for use in the United States
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