10,102 research outputs found

    Collision number statistics for transport processes

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    Many physical observables can be represented as a particle spending some random time within a given domain. For a broad class of transport-dominated processes, we detail how it is possible to express the moments of the number of particle collisions in an arbitrary volume in terms of repeated convolutions of the ensemble equilibrium distribution. This approach is shown to generalize the celebrated Kac formula for the moments of residence times, which is recovered in the diffusion limit. Some practical applications are illustrated for bounded, unbounded and absorbing domains.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

    Photon-number statistics with Silicon photomultipliers

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    We present a description of the operation of a multi-pixel detector in the presence of non-negligible dark-count and cross-talk effects. We apply the model to devise self-consistent calibration strategies to be performed on the very light under investigation

    On-site number statistics of ultracold lattice bosons

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    We study on-site occupation number fluctuations in a system of interacting bosons in an optical lattice. The ground-state distribution is obtained analytically in the limiting cases of strong and weak interaction, and by means of exact Monte Carlo simulations in the strongly correlated regime. As the interaction is increased, the distribution evolves from Poissonian in the non-interacting gas to a sharply peaked distribution in the Mott-insulator (MI) regime. In the special case of large occupation numbers, we demonstrate analytically and check numerically that there exists a wide interval of interaction strength, in which the on-site number fluctuations remain Gaussian and are gradually squeezed until they are of order unity near the superfluid (SF)-MI transition. Recently, the on-site number statistics were studied experimentally in a wide range of lattice potential depths [Phys. Rev. Lett. \textbf{96}, 090401 (2006)]. In our simulations, we are able to directly reproduce experimental conditions using temperature as the only free parameter. Pronounced temperature dependence suggests that measurements of on-site atom number fluctuations can be employed as a reliable method of thermometry in both SF and MI regimes.Comment: 9 pages, 4 figure

    Number statistics of molecules formed from ultra-cold atoms

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    We calculate the number statistics of a single-mode molecular field excited by photoassociation or via a Feshbach resonance from an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), a normal atomic Fermi gas and a Fermi system with pair correlations (BCS state). We find that the molecule formation from a BEC is a collective process that leads for short times to a coherent molecular state in the quantum optical sense. Atoms in a normal Fermi gas, on the other hand, are converted into molecules independently of each other and result for short times in a molecular state analogous to that of a classical chaotic light source. The BCS situation is intermediate between the two and goes from producing an incoherent to a coherent molecular field with increasing gap parameter.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figure

    Cavity QED determination of atomic number statistics in optical lattices

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    We study the reflection of two counter-propagating modes of the light field in a ring resonator by ultracold atoms either in the Mott insulator state or in the superfluid state of an optical lattice. We obtain exact numerical results for a simple two-well model and carry out statistical calculations appropriate for the full lattice case. We find that the dynamics of the reflected light strongly depends on both the lattice spacing and the state of the matter-wave field. Depending on the lattice spacing, the light field is sensitive to various density-density correlation functions of the atoms. The light field and the atoms become strongly entangled if the latter are in a superfluid state, in which case the photon statistics typically exhibit complicated multimodal structures.Comment: 10 pages revtex, 13 figure

    Temperature Measurement and Phonon Number Statistics of a Nanoelectromechanical Resonator

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    Measuring thermodynamic quantities can be easy or not, depending on the system that is being studied. For a macroscopic object, measuring temperatures can be as simple as measuring how much a column of mercury rises when in contact with the object. At the small scale of quantum electromechanical systems, such simple methods are not available and invariably detection processes disturb the system state. Here we propose a method for measuring the temperature on a suspended semiconductor membrane clamped at both ends. In this method, the membrane is mediating a capacitive coupling between two transmission line resonators (TLR). The first TLR has a strong dispersion, that is, its decaying rate is larger than its drive, and its role is to pump in a pulsed way the interaction between the membrane and the second TLR. By averaging the pulsed measurements of the quadrature of the second TLR we show how the temperature of the membrane can be determined. Moreover the statistical description of the state of the membrane, which is directly accessed in this approach is significantly improved by the addition of a Josephson Junction coupled to the second TLR.Comment: 9 pages, 5 figures. To appear in New Journal of Physic

    Photon number statistics uncover the fluctuations in non-equilibrium lattice dynamics

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    Fluctuations of the atomic positions are at the core of a large class of unusual material properties ranging from quantum para-electricity to high temperature superconductivity. Their measurement in solids is the subject of an intense scientific debate focused on seeking a methodology capable of establishing a direct link between the variance of the atomic displacements and experimentally measurable observables. Here we address this issue by means of non-equilibrium optical experiments performed in shot-noise limited regime. The variance of the time dependent atomic positions and momenta is directly mapped into the quantum fluctuations of the photon number of the scattered probing light. A fully quantum description of the non-linear interaction between photonic and phononic fields is benchmarked by unveiling the squeezing of thermal phonons in α\alpha-quartz.Comment: 7 pages (main text), 5 figures, 11 pages (supplementary information
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