504 research outputs found

    The Oulipo and Modernism: Literature, Craft and Mathematical Form

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    The Oulipo is known primarily for the use of formal constraints in writing. The constraint is an arbitrary application of rigorously defined formal demands (often drawn from mathematics) in the process of literary or poetic composition. The group was founded in 1960, and their remit was limited to the formulation of constraints rather than literary texts. There is thus no literary theory proposed by the Oulipo, and little in the way of critical interpretation of their methods in terms of its wider significance to the condition of art in the period of their emergence. Their approach is often counterposed to the Surrealists: where the Surrealist response to the conditions of rationalised modernity attempted to explore the unconscious, the non-rational and chance, the Oulipo’s use of constraints is consciously determined and resists the passivity of chance. The counter-model to the Surrealists for the Oulipo is the mathematical collectiveNicolas Bourbaki. Bourbaki’s rigorously abstract axiomaticmathematics provides the formal prototype of the most abstracted rationality for the Oulipo to use as compositional structures. The Oulipo also bear an ambivalent relation to structuralism, but where structuralism tends towards a descriptive identification of ‘deep structures’ of signification, the Oulipo instead deploy structures as historically-specific compositional material. This thesis proposes to read the practice of the Oulipo as a production of the ‘new’ through a form of construction as ‘craft’ that is itself receptive to critical interpretation. It contends that the Oulipo can be seen to offer a distinctive trajectory among the various responses to what Adorno identifies as a crisis of art’s autonomy in the latter half of the twentieth century; in other words, that they pursue an alternative modernism. I argue that the Oulipo’s use of arbitrary rigidified logical structures in literary composition is categorially alien to the latter’s concept, and thus that it forms a kind of resistant material which must be worked with. This model of skilled engagement recalls, in self-consciously paradoxical ways, the outmoded concept of craft which provides an alternative to, on the one hand, the post-romantic idea of artistic freedom, and on the other, full subsumption by technological procedure, maintaining a refracted instrumentality in the logic of method that yet resists pre-determination

    Orality, writing and new media

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    Writing as a technology of the self in Kierkegaard and Foucault

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    Writing is a very important means by which we can work on ourselves. Yet as a "technology of the self" writing has changed substantially at different times during European history. This essay sketches some of the crucial characteristics of wriring as a technology of the self for Plato's contemporaries, for the early church fathers, and then for Peter Abelard. The changes exemplified in the confessional writing of Abelard became the platform for writing as a technology of the self in European modernism. The characteristics of modernist writing as a technology of the self are examined in some detail in the work of Kierkegaard, particularly with respect to his aesthetic writings and his use of multiple narrative voices.Kierkegaard's uses of writing are compared and contrasted with those of Baudelaire and Foucault.Escriure és un important mitjà amb el qual podem actuar sobre nosaltres mateixos. Tanmateix, com a "tecnologia del jo", l'escriptura ha canviat substancialment en el temps durant la història europea. Aquest assaig esbossa algunes de les característiques més rellevants de l'escriptura com a tecnologia del jo per als contemporanis de Plató, per als primers pares de l'església i per a Pere Abelard. Els canvis exemplificats en l'escriptura confessional d'Abelard varen esdevenir la plataforma per a l'escriptura com una tecnologia del jo en la modernitat europea. Les característiques de l'escriprura de la modernirat en tant que tecnologia del jo són examinades arnb cert detall en l'obra de Kierkegaard, parricularment en rclació amb els seus escrits estètics i el seu us de múltiples veus narratives. Els usos Kierkegaardians dc l'escriptura són comparats i contrastats amb els de Baudelaire i Foucault

    Chinese Modernism Literature in the View of Modernity ——Centers on 1980s

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    文学思潮是现代性诞生之后,文学对现代性做出积极反应而产生的文学现象。而现代主义是现代性问题日益凸显之后文学彻底反叛现代性的美学形式。在现代性的视野下研究中国的现代主义是必要的,本文试图从现代性的角度出发,具体考察1980年代中国现代主义文学思潮。本文分为四章。第一章分析现代性与现代主义文学思潮的关系,以此作为研究中国现代主义文学思潮的参照系。第二章探讨中国现代主义文学思潮的特性:外源性、变异性、杂糅性。第三、四章以1980年代中国现代主义文学思潮的具体表现为对象,梳理其演进历程及基本形态。Literary trend is the positive response of literature to modernity after which appeared. And Modernism is an aesthetics form of tergiversating modernity by literature after the problems of modernity growing .It’s necessary to research Modernism Literature in the view of modernity. This thesis tries to review concretely the Chinese Modernism Literature in 1980s in the view of modernity. This thesis...学位:文学硕士院系专业:人文学院中文系_文艺学学号:1022006115000

    Determining Conformity to Islamic Ethical Principles in Economic Practices: A Case of Pakistan

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    The paper discuses sources of income permitted and prohibited in the faith of Islam. Under ethical constraints i.e. the allowed framework in which an individual or group of individuals can undertake economic pursuits, the Islamic teachings relating to the right conduct in economic pursuits are provided. Then, when the person in his/her economic pursuits becomes an earning individual, the Islamic teachings to an earning individual are provided in the light of Quran and Hadith. The paper also compares secular and Islamic ethics briefly. The paper also analyzes conformity of economic practices with Islamic principles and identifies specific ethical issues and deviations in specific sectors of economy at the sector and industry level.Islamic Ethics, Islamic Morality, Secular Ethics, Moral Relativism, Ethical Relativism.

    Information Research Practices, Fall 2010 – Pretest Summary Results

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    Jackie Lauer-Glebov presented Information Research Practices Survey Result

    Analysis of the Crisis of “I” in the Pirandello’s Short Stories: Taking “The Handcart” as an Example

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    Literary modernism, or modernist literature, has its origins in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, mainly in Europe and North America, and is characterized by a self-conscious break with traditional ways of writing, in both poetry and prose fiction. Italian literature is always an important force in the field of European literature. Not only in the Renaissance but also in nowadays, there are a lot of famous Italian writers who had contributed a lot to the world’s literature such as Dante, Petrarch, Boccaccio, Italo Calvino, Alberto Moravia and Pirandello. The last one’s play is famous in the whole world, and received the Nobel prize. Pirandello is popular non only in Europa but also in China, nowadays, a lot of Chinese researchers focus on his plays, but his short stories are also important and have a great value to study. This paper will focus on one Pirandello’s short story: the handcart, to talk about the crisis of “I” in all the works of Pirandello

    A Comparative Study of the Major Economic Systems in the aftermath of the Great Recession

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    This paper compares the fundamental postulates of major economic systems i.e. Capitalism, Socialism, Mixed economy (a hybrid of Capitalism and Socialism) and the Islamic economic system. It identifies through a review of theoretical economics the structural problems that lie in the current economic order. Poverty and Inequality have increased in last two decades and the millennium development goals are still far from achieved. The research identifies that lack of an ethical foundation, unbridled pursuit of self interest in production as well as in consumption, interest based financial ad monetary system are the major problematic issues in Capitalism against which mixed economy has also shown limited effectiveness. Socialism promises to create heaven on earth, but takes fundamental human rights and profit motive away and in the extreme case give way for an autocratic or totalitarian regime. Islamic economic system in its true sense is not present in any country. It is a blend of natural features present in Capitalism i.e. right to private property, private pursuit of economic interest, use of market forces etc used along with some distinct features derived through Islamic economic teachings i.e. interest free economy, moral check on unbridled self-pursuit and provision of socio-economic justice to achieve the goals of Socialism as far as is naturally possible without denying individual freedom and profit motive.Economic Systems; Interest free economy; Interest free finance; Capitalism; Socialism; Communism; Islamic Economic System; Theoretical economics; Marxism
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