191,813 research outputs found


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    Greco-Roman meteorology will be described in four overlapping developments. In the archaic period, astro-meteorological calendars were written down, and one appears in Hesiod’s Works and Days; such calendars or almanacs originated thousands of years earlier in Mesopotamia. In the second development, also in the archaic period, the pioneers of prose writing began writing speculative naturalistic explanations of meteorological phenomena: Anaximander, followed by Heraclitus, Anaxagoras, and others. When Aristotle in the fourth century BCE mentions the ‘inquiry that all our predecessors have been calling meteorology’ (338a26), he is referring to these writers. In the third development, the first two enterprises were combined: empirical data collection about meteorological phenomena began to be married to naturalistic theoretical explanation. This innovation was prompted by Democritus and synthesised in its most influential form by Aristotle. At this point more sophisticated techniques of both short-term weather forecasting and long-term speculation about global climate change were also developed. In the fourth development, the wider implications of the naturalistic explanation of meteorological phenomena were contested. The views of ‘meteorologists’ had been controversial since the archaic period because they were perceived, and sometimes intended, to displace the divine prerogatives and undermine traditional religion. These controversies intensified throughout the classical and Hellenistic periods

    Planetary meteorology

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    Meteorology of planets Mars, Venus, and Jupite

    Statistical Physics in Meteorology

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    Various aspects of modern statistical physics and meteorology can be tied together. The historical importance of the University of Wroclaw in the field of meteorology is first pointed out. Next, some basic difference about time and space scales between meteorology and climatology is outlined. The nature and role of clouds both from a geometric and thermal point of view are recalled. Recent studies of scaling laws for atmospheric variables are mentioned, like studies on cirrus ice content, brightness temperature, liquid water path fluctuations, cloud base height fluctuations, .... Technical time series analysis approaches based on modern statistical physics considerations are outlined.Comment: Short version of an invited paper at the XXIth Max Born symposium,Ladek Zdroj, Poland; Sept. 200

    Discoveries from space exploration

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    Space science contributions in astrophysics, geodesy, geology, meteorology, and astronom

    The 1981 current research on aviation weather (bibliography)

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    Current and ongoing research programs related to various areas of aviation meteorology are presented. Literature searches of major abstract publications, were conducted. Research project managers of various government agencies involved in aviation meteorology research provided a list of current research project titles and managers, supporting organizations, performing organizations, the principal investigators, and the objectives. These are tabulated under the headings of advanced meteorological instruments, forecasting, icing, lightning and atmospheric electricity; fog, visibility, and ceilings; low level wind shear, storm hazards/severe storms, turbulence, winds, and ozone and other meteorological parameters. This information was reviewed and assembled into a bibliography providing a current readily useable source of information in the area of aviation meteorology

    Agriculture/forestry, meteorology, hydrology

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    There are no author-identified significant results in this report

    Atmospheric electricity/meteorology analysis

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    This activity focuses on Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS)/Lightning Mapper Sensor (LMS) algorithm development and applied research. Specifically we are exploring the relationships between (1) global and regional lightning activity and rainfall, and (2) storm electrical development, physics, and the role of the environment. U.S. composite radar-rainfall maps and ground strike lightning maps are used to understand lightning-rainfall relationships at the regional scale. These observations are then compared to SSM/I brightness temperatures to simulate LIS/TRMM multi-sensor algorithm data sets. These data sets are supplied to the WETNET project archive. WSR88-D (NEXRAD) data are also used as it becomes available. The results of this study allow us to examine the information content from lightning imaging sensors in low-earth and geostationary orbits. Analysis of tropical and U.S. data sets continues. A neural network/sensor fusion algorithm is being refined for objectively associating lightning and rainfall with their parent storm systems. Total lightning data from interferometers are being used in conjunction with data from the national lightning network. A 6-year lightning/rainfall climatology has been assembled for LIS sampling studies

    Compendium of meteorology scientific issues of 1950 still outstanding

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    The Compendium of Meteorology was published in 1951 by the American Meteorological Society. A review was made of the Compendium of Meteorology to identify the studies and future needs which the authors expressed in their papers. The needs as seen by the authors are organized into sections and papers following the format of the Compendium of Meteorology. In some cases the needs they identified are as valid today as they were in 1951. In other cases one will easily be able to identify examples where significant progress has been made. It is left to the individual scientists and scientific program managers to assess whether significant progress has been made over the past thirty-five years on these outstanding scientific issues
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