926 research outputs found

    Spanish medical students’ attitudes and views towards Mental Health and Psychiatry: a multicentric cross-sectional study.

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    Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the attitudes towards mental illness and psychiatry among fifth year Spanish medical students. Methods The study included 171 students from three medical schools located in different areas of Spain: Cádiz; UCA (n= 113), Madrid; San Pablo-CEU (n=22), and Barcelona; UAB (n=36). They responded, prior to their undergraduate medical course in psychiatry, to the AMI questionnaire to measure the attitudes towards mental illness and to Balon’s adapted questionnaire to investigate their view towards psychiatry. Results The students (93.4 %) had a positive attitude towards mental illness (AMI). Attitudes towards psychiatry were fairly positive with a few negative views, specifically regarding the role of psychiatrists (items 11 and 13) and the prestige of the specialty (item 16). There were some statistically significant differences between the three medical schools in the perception of psychiatry as a medical discipline. A better attitude towards mental illness was associated with a better view of the overall merits of psychiatry. Conclusions Findings suggest that Spanish medical students do not have a negative attitude towards mental illness and they have a good perception of psychiatry, although there are still some misconceptions about this specialty. These student’s attitudes could favor an appropriate management of patients suffering from mental illness

    Exploring 4th Year Medical Students’ Learning and Understanding in Mental Health and Psychiatry

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    The stigmatisation and disempowerment of mental health consumers led to the consumer recovery movement, which now underpins the reform of Western Australia’s (WA’s) mental health system. As medical professionals are one of the first lines of care for consumers, it is necessary to understand whether future doctors’ training aligns with the direction of the reform. This research explored a group of WA-based fourth-year medical students’ learning in mental health and psychiatry to understand how their knowledge and training prepared them for working with people experiencing mental or emotional distress. Conducted under a qualitative research paradigm using critical theory and underpinned by constructionist assumptions, two key themes were developed: Preparedness; and “Just” treatment and care. Preparedness consists of two sub-themes, Connections and Impacts upon learning, which were the overarching issues that impacted the students’ preparedness for both their final year rotations, and future practice with consumers. The students’ preparedness for practice was dependent upon the connections made with the course content that constructed their understandings, as well as the human connections made to consumers’ experiences. Time restrictions in multiple areas had consequences for learning as well as the extent to which participants were able to put theory into practice and develop their skills while on rotation. Therefore, the students’ level of preparedness, as well as the perceived preparedness of other professionals they encountered during their rotations was found to potentially have an impact upon the ‘Just treatment and care’ that consumers may receive. This means that many consumers may not, according to students’ observations, be receiving the recovery-oriented services mandated by mental health policy and many are also still experiencing discrimination from health care professionals. Overall, the findings provide evidence for further developments for the current reform of the WA mental health system, such as underpinning mental health curricula in medical schools with the consumer recovery paradigm to ensure consistency in recovery-oriented service delivery across all mental health services. In addition, the research identified that utilising critical pedagogy in health professionals’ education may further promote a more reflexive workforce that is critical of power differentials that currently disadvantage consumers, while working to reduce discrimination and stigma. Therefore, the findings of this research may be used for the continuous quality improvement of medical students’ learning and training, while working towards advancing the reform of WA’s mental health system through transforming the underpinning assumptions and knowledges of the professionals working within the system. This research, the findings and any potential resulting reforms and continuous quality improvement of systems and curricula all have the ultimate goal of improving care and recovery for mental health service users

    Medical student attitudes to mental health and psychiatry: the use of a patient-experience short film

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    Background: Medical student attitudes to mental illness are significantly influenced by their undergraduate educational experience. Medical education therefore has a key role to play in challenging the stigma associated with mental illness. We developed a short educational film aimed at challenging stigmatising attitudes to mental illness and explored its effects on undergraduate medical student attitudes. We hypothesised that levels of stigmatising attitudes in medical students would reduce after students viewed the educational film. Method: We used a validated scale (Mental Illness: Clinician Attitudes, MICA) to examine undergraduate medical student attitudes to mental illness at two time points - prior to (T1) and following (T2) viewing the short film. The film focused on patient experiences and was designed to highlight personal experiences of mental illness. Results: 92 students completed the MICA before the film and 73 students at both time points. Having a personal history of mental illness was associated with less stigmatising attitudes (t=2.4, df=87, p=0.019). Stigma scores were reduced following the film viewing (t=7.101, df=72, p<0.001). Discussion: This study suggests that patient experience films, used as educational tools, can challenge student perceptions of mental illness and lead to a reduction in stigmatising attitudes, at least in the short term. Future studies are required to examine the longer-term effects of such educational interventions in terms of student perceptions and attitudes towards mental health and psychiatry

    Activities of nursing managers in mental health and psychiatry units

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    O desempenho do gestor em enfermagem, encontra-se em persistente progresso, fruto das diferentes políticas assistenciais assumidas ao longo de décadas, com evidente valorização atribuída pelos clientes recetores de cuidados e equipe de liderados, concorrendo igualmente para esta mudança, a produtividade e excelência exigida pelas organizações. As atividades desenvolvidas pelos gestores de enfermagem nos cinco domínios de intervenção que constituem as suas competências, revelam a capacidade de adaptação, resiliência e perspicácia, como forma de atuação, delineamento de estratégias e orientação na operacionalização das práticas. Esta investigação resulta da precisão em compreender o desempenho das atividades do enfermeiro gestor em Portugal, à luz dos contextos de saúde mental e psiquiatria. Realizou-se um estudo ancorado no paradigma quantitativo, do tipo descritivo e transversal. Amostra constituída por 52 elementos que responderam a um questionário de autopreenchimento online. Os enfermeiros que participaram no estudo eram maioritariamente do sexo feminino, com idade compreendida de 40 a 50 anos, tempo de exercício profissional entre 10 a 20 anos e uma média de 13,08 anos de experiência em gestão nos contextos de saúde mental e psiquiatria. Dos resultados obtidos, com recurso à Escala de Perceção do Trabalho do Gestor em Enfermagem, destacamos a distribuição das frequências da Prática Profissional, Ética e Legal, Gestão de Cuidados, Gestão de Recursos Humanos e Intervenção Política e Assessoria para as variáveis: áreas de atuação, acreditação dos serviços e experiência profissional. Verificou-se ainda um perfil de gestor com desempenho global de excelente, com representação de 63,5% na amostra para a frequência das atividades no total da escala aplicada para os cinco domínios de gestão. Considerando o Alfa de Cronbach da escala (0,974), conclui-se que avalia o que se pretende. Conclui-se que as atividades que constituem as cinco competências do enfermeiro gestor são implementadas com frequência, o que revela gestores empenhados no seu papel

    Activities of nursing managers in mental health and psychiatry units

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    O desempenho do gestor em enfermagem, encontra-se em persistente progresso, fruto das diferentes políticas assistenciais assumidas ao longo de décadas, com evidente valorização atribuída pelos clientes recetores de cuidados e equipe de liderados, concorrendo igualmente para esta mudança, a produtividade e excelência exigida pelas organizações. As atividades desenvolvidas pelos gestores de enfermagem nos cinco domínios de intervenção que constituem as suas competências, revelam a capacidade de adaptação, resiliência e perspicácia, como forma de atuação, delineamento de estratégias e orientação na operacionalização das práticas. Esta investigação resulta da precisão em compreender o desempenho das atividades do enfermeiro gestor em Portugal, à luz dos contextos de saúde mental e psiquiatria. Realizou-se um estudo ancorado no paradigma quantitativo, do tipo descritivo e transversal. Amostra constituída por 52 elementos que responderam a um questionário de autopreenchimento online. Os enfermeiros que participaram no estudo eram maioritariamente do sexo feminino, com idade compreendida de 40 a 50 anos, tempo de exercício profissional entre 10 a 20 anos e uma média de 13,08 anos de experiência em gestão nos contextos de saúde mental e psiquiatria. Dos resultados obtidos, com recurso à Escala de Perceção do Trabalho do Gestor em Enfermagem, destacamos a distribuição das frequências da Prática Profissional, Ética e Legal, Gestão de Cuidados, Gestão de Recursos Humanos e Intervenção Política e Assessoria para as variáveis: áreas de atuação, acreditação dos serviços e experiência profissional. Verificou-se ainda um perfil de gestor com desempenho global de excelente, com representação de 63,5% na amostra para a frequência das atividades no total da escala aplicada para os cinco domínios de gestão. Considerando o Alfa de Cronbach da escala (0,974), conclui-se que avalia o que se pretende. Conclui-se que as atividades que constituem as cinco competências do enfermeiro gestor são implementadas com frequência, o que revela gestores empenhados no seu papel

    Progress in research at the cibersam's Affective disorders programme of the University of Barcelona Hospital Clinic.

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    The affective disorders programme at the University of Barcelona Hospital Clinic involves two separate subgroups according to their research target: the Unipolar Depression subgroup and the Barcelona Bipolar Disorders Programme. Both are part of the Spanish "Centro de Investigación Biomédica En Red en Salud Mental" (CIBERSAM), which is a Virtual Center of Network Research in Mental Health and Psychiatry, which has gathered the best research groups in Psychiatry and related disciplines in Spain. The Clinic-Affective Disorders research group has focused on the neurobiology (genetics, biomarkers, neuropsychology, neuroimaging), epidemiology (clinical subtypes, comorbidity, psychometric assessment, functionality), and treatment of bipolar and unipolar affective disorders (including pharmacological, biophysical, and psychosocial strategies). It has an outstanding and long tradition of collaborative research with national and international groups, and publishes over 60 original articles per year based on research findings, many of which have had significant impact on clinical practice

    Healthy Minds in the Twentieth Century

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    This open access edited collection contributes a new dimension to the study of mental health and psychiatry in the twentieth century. It takes the present literature beyond the ‘asylum and after’ paradigm to explore the multitude of spaces that have been permeated by concerns about mental well-being and illness. The chapters in this volume consciously attempt to break down institutional walls and consider mental health through the lenses of institutions, policy, nomenclature, art, lived experience, and popular culture. The book adopts an international scope covering the historical experiences of Britain, Ireland, and North America. In accordance with this broad approach, contributions to the volume span academic fields such as history, arts, literary studies, sociology, and psychology, mirroring the diversity of the subject matter. This book is available open access under a CC BY 4.0 license at link.springer.co

    From Centralized To Decentralized Service: Mental Health And Psychiatry In Malaysia

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    This chapter charts the fonnation and transfonnation of mental institu- 1,ons, therapeutic concepts, and psychiatric practices in Malay(si)a from the early 11ineteenth century throughout the post-independence era. Introduced by colonial- 1'1S in the early nineteenth century, mental health institutions in Malaya started out ,I\ a colonial program that aimed to clean the colony of vagrants, starving migrants, paupers, drug addicts, convicts, and people afflicted with mental iUnesses by con- 1 ining them in gaols. It was not until the mid-nineteenth century that the mental .,sylum was separated from the gaol. At the tum of the twentieth century, an mcrease in the number of mentally ill patients coincided with the large influx of migrant workers from China and India. The overrepresentation of male Chinese patients mirrored the demographic structure of the immigrant population. Rncialized medical comprehension of mental illness was not uncommon. !'herapeutic practices included occupational therapy, shower baths or cold douches, and electroconvulsive treatment (ECT). These practices were an essential part of a hroader process of molding the mentally ill into economically productive, morally useful and desirable colonial subjects. As a set of transplanted practices, colonial institutional mental health services did not automatically acquire legitimacy. The availability of traditional healing services, the public preference for traditional therapies, and social stigma and scarce modem psychiatric services jointly contributed to the unpopularity of these mental health institutions. Several changes and debates took place after independence. The government took the initiative to decentralize mental health services by setting up psychiatric units at district and general hospitals from 1958. Local medical education began to offer psychiatric training to overcome the shortage of professionals

    O ensino clínico de enfermagem de saúde mental e psiquiátrica : proposta de uma matriz para o acompanhamento dos estudantes do curso de licenciatura

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    Nas últimas décadas, a formação dos estudantes do curso de Enfermagem tem sido alvo de várias mudanças e transformações, parecendo consensual que a formação se processa segundo momentos de ensino teórico e momentos em ensino clínico. O acompanhamento dos estudantes de Enfermagem em ensino clínico tem sido alvo de algumas investigações nos últimos anos, uma vez que a área de Saúde Mental e Psiquiatria apresenta um papel muito relevante no desenvolvimento e construção da identidade do futuro profissional. Trata-se de um estudo quantitativo, qualitativo, exploratório e analítico, que tem como finalidade propor uma matriz de acompanhamento dos estudantes nos contextos de Ensino Clínico de Enfermagem de Saúde Mental e Psiquiatria visando facilitar a aprendizagem mais adequada às situações na saúde e doença mental. Os objetivos específicos são: (1) identificar as crenças e valores dos estudantes de Enfermagem acerca das doenças mentais, antes e depois da realização do Ensino Clínico de Enfermagem de Saúde Mental e Psiquiatria; (2) perspetivar estratégias que potenciem o desenvolvimento e desempenho dos estudantes neste contexto específico, recolhendo a compreensão que orientadores, estudantes e professores têm do processo; (3) construir uma matriz de acompanhamento, com base nas etapas anteriores. Na metodologia, recorremos a diferentes fontes de dados e instrumentos sendo desenvolvida em duas etapas sequenciais. A primeira etapa correspondeu a uma abordagem quantitativa e descritiva em que foi utilizado o Inventário de Crenças acerca das Doenças Mentais de Loureiro (2008), aplicado no início do Ensino Clínico de Enfermagem de Saúde Mental e Psiquiatria e no final desse mesmo Ensino Clínico, seis semanas depois, aos estudantes do Curso de Licenciatura em Enfermagem. Foram entregues 51 questionários aos estudantes que iriam realizar o Ensino Clínico de Enfermagem Saúde Mental e Psiquiatria no 1º dia de Ensino Clínico. Após a conclusão desse Ensino Clínico foram entregues 51 questionários dos quais recebemos 48, sendo a taxa de participação de 94%. A segunda etapa correspondeu a uma abordagem qualitativa e descritiva, em que recolhemos a opinião dos professores, orientadores e estudantes face às situações experienciadas, que dificuldades e estratégias utilizam no Ensino Clínico. Para esta colheita de dados utilizámos entrevistas de “focus group” (grupo de discussão ou grupo focal). Foram constituídos três grupos: (1) uma amostra de estudantes, que vivenciaram o Ensino Clínico de Enfermagem Saúde Mental e Psiquiatria, e aos quais, na primeira etapa do estudo, foi aplicado o Inventário de Crenças acerca das Doenças Mentais antes e depois do Ensino Clínico de Enfermagem de Saúde Mental e Psiquiatria; (2) um grupo de professores que vivenciaram o Ensino Clínico de Enfermagem Saúde Mental e Psiquiatria e (3) uma amostra de enfermeiros orientadores, que vivenciaram o Ensino Clínico de Enfermagem Saúde Mental e Psiquiatria. Os verbatins das entrevistas de “focus group” (grupo de discussão ou grupo focal) realizadas foram sujeitos a análise crítica de discurso, sustentada pelo modelo tridimensional de Norman Fairclough. Sustentado pelo quadro concetual composto para este estudo, e que se constituiu como a base para a proposta de construção da matriz, estabelecemos ligação entre os componentes principais da matriz disciplinar de Thomas Kunh e os papéis propostos no modelo de Hildegard Peplau.In the last decades, the nursing students education has been the subject of several changes and transformations, and it seems to be consensual that takes place according to theoretical teaching and clinical teaching. The monitoring of nursing students in clinical education has been the subject of some investigations in recent years, since the area of Mental Health and Psychiatry has a very relevant role in the development and construction of the identity of the future professional. This is a quantitative, qualitative, exploratory and analytical study, which aims to propose a monitoring matrix for students in the context of Clinical Nursing Teaching in Mental Health and Psychiatry in order to facilitate learning more appropriate to situations in health and mental illness . The specific objectives are: (1) to identify nursing students' beliefs and values about mental illnesses, before and after the clinical teaching of mental health and psychiatry nursing; (2) to envisage strategies that enhance the development and performance of students in this specific context, gathering the understanding that supervisors, students and teachers have of the process; (3) build a monitoring matrix, based on the previous steps. In the methodology, we use different sources of data and instruments developed in two sequential steps. The first step corresponded to a quantitative and descriptive approach in which the Loureiro Inventory of Beliefs about Mental Illnesses was used, applied at the beginning of Clinical Teaching in Mental Health Nursing and Psychiatry and at the end of that same Clinical Teaching, six weeks later, to students of the Nursing Degree Course. 51 questionnaires were delivered to the students who were going to take the Clinical Teaching of Nursing Mental Health and Psychiatry on the 1st day of Clinical Teaching. After completing this Clinical Teaching, 51 questionnaires were again delivered, of which we received 48, with a participation rate of 94%. The second step corresponded to a qualitative and descriptive approach, in which we collect the opinion of teachers, advisors and students in the face of the situations experienced, which difficulties and strategies they use in Clinical Teaching. For this data collection we used “focus group” interviews (focus group or focus group). Three groups were constituted: (1) a sample of students, who experienced Clinical Nursing Teaching Mental Health and Psychiatry, and to whom, in the first phase of the study, the Inventory of Beliefs about Mental Illnesses was applied before and after Teaching Mental Health and Psychiatry Nursing Clinician; (2) a group of teachers who experienced Clinical Nursing Teaching Mental Health and Psychiatry and (3) a sample of nurse advisors, who experienced Clinical Teaching Nursing Mental Health and Psychiatry. The verbatim interviews of focus group were made subject to critical discourse analysis, supported by the three-dimensional model of Norman Fairclough. Supported by the conceptual framework composed for this study, which constituted the basis for the proposal to construct the matrix, we established a link between the main components of the disciplinary matrix of Thomas Kunh and the roles proposed in the model of Hildegard Peplau

    Relatório de estágio

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    O presente relatório descreve o processo de aprendizagem desenvolvido ao longo do estágio, reflectindo através dos objectivos delineados e respectivas intervenções que os concretizam, o conjunto de competências adquiridas em Enfermagem de Saúde Mental e Psiquiátrica. O estágio desenvolveu-se em três diferentes módulos: Centro de Saúde de Delães – Vila Nova de Famalicão, no âmbito da Promoção da Saúde Mental, promoção de estilos de vida saudável, diagnóstico e prevenção da doença mental na comunidade e Centros de Saúde, onde pude desenvolver competências na área da Saúde Mental e Psiquiátrica de entre outros projectos destaco a criação de uma Consulta de Enfermagem ao Idoso; na Unidade S. João de Deus na Casa de Saúde do Bom Jesus – Internamento de Agudos, onde pude também desenvolver competências em Saúde Mental e Psiquiátrica em unidades de intervenção na crise de adultos onde destaco a criação de uma Consulta de Enfermagem de avaliação de Risco de Suicídio e a identificação de problemas dos doentes; o terceiro módulo foi creditado pela experiencia profissional já adquirida ao longo do percurso profissional. Este Relatório pretende traduzir de forma reflexiva o percurso efectuado ao longo de todo o estágio.This report describes the process of learning developed over the stage, reflecting the objectives set through their interventions and their achievement, the set of skills acquired in Nursing Mental Health and Psychiatry. The stage was developed in three different modules: Centro de Saúde de Delães - Vila Nova de Famalicão, under the Mental Health Promotion, promotion of healthy lifestyles, diagnosis and prevention of mental illness in the community and health centers, where I was able to develop skills in the field of Mental Health and Psychiatry among other projects emphasize the creation of a Nursing Consultation for the Elderly; Unidade S. João de Deus, Casa de Saúde do Bom Jesus - Internment Treble, where you could also develop skills in Mental Health and Psychiatry in units of crisis intervention for adults which highlight the creation of a Nursing Consultation for Suicide Risk Assessment and identification problems of patients, the third module was credited with the professional experience gained throughout the career. This Report aims to translate reflectively the journey made throughout the stage
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