3,808 research outputs found

    Medical Toxicology for the Emergency Medicine Clerkship

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    Medical toxicology is frequently a weak subject area for medical students. This may be due to few fellowship-trained medical toxicologists at academic institutions, overshadowing of medical toxicology by “bread and butter” emergency medicine lectures, and material not being presented in an engaging manner. Power points are often used for lectures to deliver a large amount of content in a short time frame. However, students may become disengaged and experience a “death by power point” feeling

    The Toxicology Investigators Consortium Case Registry-the 2016 Experience.

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    The Toxicology Investigators Consortium (ToxIC) Case Registry was established by the American College of Medical Toxicology in 2010. The Registry contains data from participating sites with the agreement that all bedside medical toxicology consultations will be entered. Currently, 83% of accredited medical toxicology fellowship programs in the USA participate. The Registry continues to grow each year, and as of 31 December 2016, a new milestone was reached, with more than 50,000 cases reported since its inception. The objective of this seventh annual report is to summarize the Registry\u27s 2016 data and activity with its additional 8529 cases. Cases were identified for inclusion in this report by a query of the ToxIC database for any case entered from 1 January to 31 December 2016. Detailed data was collected from these cases and aggregated to provide information which includes the following: demographics (age, gender, race, ethnicity, HIV status), reason for medical toxicology evaluation (intentional pharmaceutical exposure, envenomation, withdrawal from a substance), agent and agent class, clinical signs and symptoms (vital sign abnormalities, organ system dysfunction), treatments and antidotes administered, fatality and life support withdrawal data. Fifty percent of cases involved females, and adults aged 19-65 were the most commonly reported. There were 86 patients (1.0%) with HIV-positive status known. Non-opioid analgesics were the most commonly reported agent class, with acetaminophen the most common agent reported. There were 126 fatalities reported in 2016 (1.5% of cases). Major trends in demographics and exposure characteristics remained similar overall with past years\u27 reports. While treatment interventions were commonly required, fatalities were rare

    Introductory Chapter: Medical Toxicology

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    DNA damage and repair proteins in cellular response to sulfur mustard in Iranian veterans more than two decades after exposure

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    Delayed effects of sulfur mustard (SM) exposure on the levels of five important damage/repair proteins were investigated in 40 SM-exposed veterans of Iran-Iraq war and 35 unexposed controls. A major DNA damage biomarker protein – phosphorylated H2AX – along with four DNA repair proteins in cell response to the genome damage MRE11, NBS1, RAD51, and XPA were evaluated in blood lymphocytes from the veterans and controls using western blotting. Mean levels of XPA, MRE11, RAD51 and NBS1 were lower in SM-exposed patients and the decrease in NBS1 was significant. Even though the raised level of phosphor-H2AX in SM-poisoned group compared to the controls was not significant it was consistent with DNA damage findings confirming the severity of damage to the DNA after exposure to SM. There were correlations between the values of RAD51 and NBS1 proteins as well as XPA and MRE11 proteins. More than two decades after exposure to SM, there is still evidences of DNA damage as well as impaired repair mechanisms in cells of exposed individuals. Such disorders in cellular level may contribute to long term health problems of the SM veterans

    Depilatory Agents intoxication and factors contributing to its mortality:A 9-year review

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    Poisoning with depilatory agents is a rather uncommon entity in western countries. In this study, we describe poisoning with a corrosive arsenic-based depilatory agent (CABD) and factors related to its mortality in a poisoning center in Tehran. In a retrospective study, the medical records of all patients with CABD intoxication who attended the emergency ward of Loghman-Hakim hospital, the only poisoning center in Tehran, over a 9-year period between 2000 and 2009 were reviewed. The majority of patients were men (78.7%, n = 122 vs. women: 21.3%, n = 33). The mean age was 35.55 ± 16.68 years. Mean time of arrival to hospital was 3.63 hours (SD = 4.07). The mortality rate was 5.8% and increased significantly with higher amounts of ingestion and delay in arrival to hospital. CABD poisoning may be lethal if not treated promptly and correctly. Restriction or, if not practical, reduction of harmful components of this substance should be considered

    Deoxyribonucleic acid damage in Iranian veterans 25 years after wartime exposure to sulfur mustard

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    • Background: More than 100,000 Iranian veterans and civilians still suffer from various long-term complications due to their exposure to sulfur mustard (SM) during the Iran–Iraq war in 1983–88. The aim of the study was to investigate DNA damage of SM in veterans who were exposed to SM, 23–27 years prior to this study. • Materials and Methods: Blood samples were obtained from the veterans and healthy volunteers as negative controls. Lymphocytes were isolated from blood samples and DNA breaks were measured using single-cell microgel electrophoresis technique under alkaline conditions (comet assay). Single cells were analyzed with “Tri Tek Comet Score version 1.5” software and DNA break was measured based on the percentage of tail DNA alone, or in the presence of H2O2 (25 μM) as a positive control. • Results: A total of 25 SM exposed male veterans and 25 male healthy volunteers with similar ages (44.66 ± 6.2 and 42.12 ± 5.75 years, respectively) were studied. Percentage of the lymphocyte DNA damage was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in the SM-exposed individuals than in the controls (6.47 ± 0.52 and 1.31 ± 0.35, respectively). Percentages of DNA damage in the different age groups of 35–39, 40–44, 45–49, and 50–54 years in SM-exposed veterans (5.48 ± 0.17, 6.7 3 ± 1.58, 6.42 ± 0.22, and 7.27 ± 0.38, respectively) were all significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the controls (1.18 ± 0.25, 1.53 ± 0.22, 1.27 ± 0.20, and 1.42 ± 0.10, respectively). The lymphocytes incubated with H2O2 had much higher DNA damage as expected. The average of tail DNA is 42.12 ± 2.75% for control cells + H2O2 and 18.48 ± 2.14% for patients cells + H2O2; P < 0.001. • Conclusion: SM exposure of the veterans revealed DNA damage as judged by the comet assay
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