833,195 research outputs found

    Knowledge Summary 22: Reaching Child Brides

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    Child marriage affects 10 million girls under the age of 18 every year. The negative health and social impact of child marriage include higher rates of maternal and infant mortality, sexually transmitted infection, social separation, and domestic abuse compared with older married women. The UN defines Child Marriage as a Human Rights violation and is working to end this practice globally, however many girls still fall victim each year. While the importance of ending the practice of child marriage cannot be overlooked, targeted interventions are also needed to mitigate the negative health and development impacts. Health services can serve as an entry point for health and social interventions to decrease the risks associated with pregnancy and improve reproductive and child health. Health services can also facilitate opportunities for multi-sectoral connections such as formal and informal education and income generation to mitigate the negative impact of child marriage

    Knowledge Summary 23: Human Rights & Accountability

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    Progress has been made in reducing maternal and child mortality, yet millions continue to die from preventable causes. These deaths represent an accountability challenge and a major concern shared by both the health and human rights communities. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) commit to reducing these deaths. Powerful complementarities exist between MDGs and human rights.1 The MDGs generate attention, mobilise resources and contribute technical health monitoring approaches. Human rights offer a fundamental emphasis on accountability, systematic and sustained attention to inequities and a legal grounding of commitments. This knowledge summary explores human rights accountability systems at community, country, regional and international levels and the potential synergies for achieving both human rights and public health goals including, and beyond, the MDGs

    Methodology for Sampling Women at High Maternal Risk in Administrative Data

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    Background: In population level studies, the conventional practice of categorizing women into low and high maternal risk samples relies upon ascertaining the presence of various comorbid conditions in administrative data. Two problems with the conventional method include variability in the recommended comorbidities to consider and inability to distinguish between maternal and fetal risks. High maternal risk sample selection may be improved by using the Obstetric Comorbidity Index (OCI), a system of risk scoring based on weighting comorbidities associated with maternal end organ damage. The purpose of this study was to compare the net benefit of using OCI risk scoring vs the conventional risk identification method to identify a sample of women at high maternal risk in administrative data. Methods: This was a net benefit analysis using linked delivery hospitalization discharge and vital records data for women experiencing singleton births in Georgia from 2008 to 2012. We compared the value identifying a sample of women at high maternal risk using the OCI score to the conventional method of dichotomous identification of any comorbidities. Value was measured by the ability to select a sample of women designated as high maternal risk who experienced severe maternal morbidity or mortality. Results: The high maternal risk sample created with the OCI had a small but positive net benefit (+ 0.6), while the conventionally derived sample had a negative net benefit indicating the sample selection performed worse than identifying no woman as high maternal risk. Conclusions: The OCI can be used to select women at high maternal risk in administrative data. The OCI provides a consistent method of identification for women at risk of maternal morbidity and mortality and avoids confounding all obstetric risk factors with specific maternal risk factors. Using the OCI may help reduce misclassification as high maternal risk and improve the consistency in identifying women at high maternal risk in administrative data

    An Examination of the Maternal Health Quality of Care Landscape in India

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    India has made significant strides in maternal health over the past several decades, reducingits maternal mortality ratio (MMR) from 556 to 174 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births from1990 to 2015 (World Bank 2016a). Policies and initiatives to increase access to maternal healthservices largely account for this progress. However, the rate of improvement has slowed, and thecountry continues to contribute almost one-quarter of maternal deaths globally (Nair 2011). Inaddition, India is home to a high but difficult to measure rate of so-called near-miss maternaldeaths that often lead to maternal morbidity. Although the incidence of maternal morbidity inIndia is largely unknown due to the country's lack of diagnoses and under-reporting, it isestimated that millions of Indian women experience pregnancy-related morbidity; the GlobalBurden of Disease estimates that India contributes one-fifth of the disability-adjusted life yearslost globally due to maternal health conditions (World Health Organization 2008). These patternssuggest there is still progress to be made in maternal health in India.The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation seeks to continue its more than 20-year history supporting population and reproductive health in India and accelerate the country'sadvancement in maternal health. It has chosen to fund a three-and-a-half-year grantmakingstrategy to improve maternal health quality of care, which has emerged as a key means to furtherreduce MMR and related outcomes. This review is intended to describe current issues andinterventions in the delivery of maternal health care and provide a backdrop for the Foundation'sgrantmaking effort

    Maternal depression and youth internalizing and externalizing symptomatology: severity and chronicity of past maternal depression and current maternal depressive symptoms

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    Maternal depression is a well-documented risk factor for youth depression, and taking into account its severity and chronicity may provide important insight into the degree of risk conferred. This study explored the degree to which the severity/chronicity of maternal depression history explained variance in youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms above and beyond current maternal depressive symptoms among 171 youth (58 % male) ages 8 to 12 over a span of 3 years. Severity and chronicity of past maternal depression and current maternal depressive symptoms were examined as predictors of parent-reported youth internalizing and externalizing symptomatology, as well as youth self-reported depressive symptoms. Severity and chronicity of past maternal depression did not account for additional variance in youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms at Time 1 beyond what was accounted for by maternal depressive symptoms at Time 1. Longitudinal growth curve modeling indicated that prior severity/chronicity of maternal depression predicted levels of youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms at each time point when controlling for current maternal depressive symptoms at each time point. Chronicity of maternal depression, apart from severity, also predicted rate of change in youth externalizing symptoms over time. These findings highlight the importance of screening and assessing for current maternal depressive symptoms, as well as the nature of past depressive episodes. Possible mechanisms underlying the association between severity/chronicity of maternal depression and youth outcomes, such as residual effects from depressive history on mother–child interactions, are discussed.The current work was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (MH066077, PI: Martha C. Tompson, PhD; MH082861, PI: Martha C. Tompson, PhD;). (MH066077 - National Institutes of Health; MH082861 - National Institutes of Health)Published versio

    Efficient fetal-maternal ECG signal separation from two channel maternal abdominal ECG via diffusion-based channel selection

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    There is a need for affordable, widely deployable maternal-fetal ECG monitors to improve maternal and fetal health during pregnancy and delivery. Based on the diffusion-based channel selection, here we present the mathematical formalism and clinical validation of an algorithm capable of accurate separation of maternal and fetal ECG from a two channel signal acquired over maternal abdomen

    Serotonin and motherhood: From molecules to mood

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    Emerging research points to a valuable role of the monoamine neurotransmitter, serotonin, in the display of maternal behaviors and reproduction-associated plasticity in the maternal brain. Serotonin is also implicated in the pathophysiology of numerous affective disorders and likely plays an important role in the pathophysiology of maternal mental illness. Therefore, the main goals of this review are to detail: 1) how the serotonin system of the female brain changes across pregnancy and postpartum; 2) the role of the central serotonergic system in maternal caregiving and maternal aggression; and 3) how the serotonin system and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs) are involved in the treatment of maternal mental illness. Although there is much work to be done, studying the central serotonin system’s multifaceted role in the maternal brain is vital to our understanding of the processes governing matrescence and the maintenance of motherhood

    Burden of severe maternal morbidity and association with adverse birth outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia: protocol for a prospective cohort study.

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    OBJECTIVES: The AMANHI morbidity study aims to quantify and describe severe maternal morbidities and assess their associations with adverse maternal, fetal and newborn outcomes in predominantly rural areas of nine sites in eight South Asian and sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS: AMANHI takes advantage of on-going population-based cohort studies covering approximately 2 million women of reproductive age with 1- to 3-monthly pregnancy surveillance to enrol pregnant women. Morbidity information is collected at five follow-up home visits - three during the antenatal period at 24-28 weeks, 32-36 weeks and 37+ weeks of pregnancy and two during the postpartum period at 1-6 days and after 42-60 days after birth. Structured-questionnaires are used to collect self-reported maternal morbidities including hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, infections, difficulty in labor and obstetric fistula, as well as care-seeking for these morbidities and outcomes for mothers and babies. Additionally, structured questionnaires are used to interview birth attendants who attended women's deliveries. All protocols were harmonised across the sites including training, implementation and operationalising definitions for maternal morbidities. IMPORTANCE OF THE AMANHI MORBIDITY STUDY: Availability of reliable data to synthesize evidence for policy direction, interventions and programmes, remains a crucial step for prioritization and ensuring equitable delivery of maternal health interventions especially in high burden areas. AMANHI is one of the first large harmonized population-based cohort studies being conducted in several rural centres in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, and is expected to make substantial contributions to global knowledge on maternal morbidity burden and its implications

    Decision Making Towards Maternal Health Services in Central Java, Indonesia

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    Background: Indonesia has always been struggling with maternal health issue even after the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) programs were done. Prior research findings identified many factors which influenced maternal health status in developing countries such Indonesia and even though various efforts had been made, the impact of the transformation of maternal health behavior was minimal.Purpose: This study aimed to seek an understanding of the factors influencing decisions towards maternal health services.Methods: A case study with a single case embedded design was employed. Interviews and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were held to collect data from 3 health workers and 40 maternal women in a sub-district in Central Java, Indonesia.Results: Interviews with the village midwives as the main health providers in the Getasan sub-district concluded that there were several factors influencing the women\u27s decisions towards maternal services. The factors were options to have services with other health workers outside the area, and shaman services as alternative care and family influencing maternal health behaviors. The analysis of the FGDs also supported the village midwives\u27 statements that in spite of their awareness towards the available maternal health services, the existence of shamans and traditional beliefs strongly affected their decision.Conclusion: The findings in this study showed that cultural issues prevented the maximum maternal health status in Getasan sub-district. This study recommends Puskesmas (Primary Health Care) as the first level of health institutions in Indonesia to support the village midwives\u27 roles within their target area
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