4,528 research outputs found

    MG-132 reduces virus release in Bovine herpesvirus-1 infection

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    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) can provoke conjunctivitis, abortions and shipping fever. BoHV-1 infection can also cause immunosuppression and increased susceptibility to secondary bacterial infections, leading to pneumonia and occasionally to death. Herein, we investigated the influence of MG-132, a proteasome inhibitor, on BoHV-1 infection in bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. Infection of MDBK cells with BoHV-1 induces apoptotic cell death that enhances virus release. Whereas, MG-132 inhibited virus-induced apoptosis and stimulated autophagy. Protein expression of viral infected cell protein 0 (bICP0), which is constitutively expressed during infection and is able to stimulate Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), was completely inhibited by MG-132. These results were accompanied by a significant delay in the NF-κB activation. Interestingly, the efficient virus release provoked by BoHV-1-induced apoptosis was significantly reduced by MG-132. Overall, this study suggests that MG-132, through the activation of autophagy, may limit BoHV-1 replication during productive infection, by providing an antiviral defense mechanism

    MG-132, an inhibitor of proteasomes and calpains, induced inhibition of oocyte maturation and aneuploidy in mouse oocytes

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    BACKGROUND: Although chromosome missegregation during oocyte maturation (OM) is a significant contributor to human morbidity and mortality, very little is known about the causes and mechanisms of aneuploidy. Several investigators have proposed that temporal perturbations during OM predispose oocytes to aberrant chromosome segregation. One approach for testing this proposal is to temporarily inhibit the activity of protein proteolysis during OM. We used the reversible proteasome inhibitor MG-132 to transiently perturb the temporal sequence of events during OM and subsequently analyzed mouse metaphase II (MII) for cytogenetic abnormalities. The transient inhibition of proteasome activity by MG-132 resulted in elevated levels of oocytes containing extra chromatids and chromosomes. RESULTS: The transient inhibition of proteasome-mediated proteolysis during OM by MG-132 resulted in dose-response delays during OM and elevated levels of aneuploid MII oocytes. Oocytes exposed in vitro to MG-132 exhibited greater delays during metaphase I (MI) as demonstrated by significantly (p < 0.01) higher levels of MI arrested oocytes and lower frequencies of premature sister chromatid separation in MII oocytes. Furthermore, the proportions of MII oocytes containing single chromatids and extra chromosomes significantly (p < 0.01) increased with MG-132 dosage. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the MG-132-induced transient delay of proteasomal activity during mouse OM in vitro predisposed oocytes to abnormal chromosome segregation. Although these findings support a relationship between disturbed proteasomal activity and chromosome segregation, considerable additional data are needed to further investigate the roles of proteasome-mediated proteolysis and other potential molecular mechanisms on chromosome segregation during OM

    Effects of proteasome inhibitor MG-132 on the parasite Schistosoma mansoni

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    Proteasome is a proteolytic complex responsible for intracellular protein turnover in eukaryotes, archaea and in some actinobacteria species. Previous work has demonstrated that in Schistosoma mansoni parasites, the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 affects parasite development. However, the molecular targets affected by MG-132 in S. mansoni are not entirely known. Here, we used expression microarrays to measure the genome-wide changes in gene expression of S. mansoni adult worms exposed in vitro to MG-132, followed by in silico functional analyses of the affected genes using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Scanning electron microscopy was used to document changes in the parasites' tegument. We identified 1,919 genes with a statistically significant (q-value <= 0.025) differential expression in parasites treated for 24 h with MG-132, when compared with control. Of these, a total of 1,130 genes were up-regulated and 790 genes were down-regulated. A functional gene interaction network comprised of MG-132 and its target genes, known from the literature to be affected by the compound in humans, was identified here as affected by MG-132. While MG-132 activated the expression of the 26S proteasome genes, it also decreased the expression of 19S chaperones assembly, 20S proteasome maturation, ubiquitin-like NEDD8 and its partner cullin-3 ubiquitin ligase genes. Interestingly, genes that encode proteins related to potassium ion binding, integral membrane component, ATPase and potassium channel activities were significantly down-regulated, whereas genes encoding proteins related to actin binding and microtubule motor activity were significantly up-regulated. MG132 caused important changes in the worm tegumentpeeling, outbreaks and swelling in the tegument tubercles could be observed, which is consistent with interference on the ionic homeostasis in S. mansoni. Finally, we showed the down-regulation of Bax pro-apoptotic gene, as well as up-regulation of two apoptosis inhibitor genes, IAP1 and BRE1, and in contrast, down-regulation of Apaf-1 apoptotic activator, thus suggesting that apoptosis is deregulated in S. mansoni exposed to MG-132. A considerable insight has been gained concerning the potential of MG-132 as a gene expression modulator, and overall the data suggest that the proteasome might be an important molecular target for the design of new drugs against schistosomiasis.Univ Sao Paulo, Fac Med Ribeirao Preto, Dept Bioquim & Imunol, Ribeirao Preto, SP, BrazilUniv Sao Paulo, Dept Bioquim, Inst Quim, Sao Paulo, SP, BrazilAdolfo Lutz Inst, Ctr Parasitol & Micol, Nucleo Enteroparasitas, Sao Paulo, SP, BrazilUniv Franca, Nucleo Pesquisa Ciencias Exatas & Tecnol, Grp Pesquisa Prod Nat, Franca, SP, BrazilInst Butantan, Lab Expressao Genica Eucariotos, Sao Paulo, SP, BrazilUniv Fed Uberlandia, Inst Genet Bioquim, Campus Patos de Minas, Patos De Minas, MG, BrazilUniv Fed Sao Paulo, Escola Paulista Med, Dept Microbiol Imunol & Parasitol, Discipline Parasitol, Sao Paulo, SP, BrazilUniv Fed Rio de Janeiro, Inst Biol, Ctr Ciencias & Saude, Rio De Janeiro, RJ, BrazilUniv Fed Sao Paulo, Escola Paulista Med, Dept Microbiol Imunol & Parasitol, Discipline Parasitol, Sao Paulo, SP, BrazilWeb of Scienc

    Reduced level of synapsin I protein in the rat striatum after intraventricular administration of proteasome inhibitors: preliminary studies

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    Background: We have recently described changes present in nigrostriatal terminals after intraperitoneal administration of MG-132 and changes that occur in the walls of the rat lateral ventricle after intraventricular administration of MG-132, lactacystin and epoxomicin — different classes of proteasome inhibitors. Substances that inhibit ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) activity, are intensively studied due to their potential role as novel therapeutic strategies in the treatment of cancer and ischaemia-reperfusion injury in the brain. The aim of this study is to determine the influence of intraventricular administration of MG-132, lactacystin and epoxomicin on the level in the rat striatum synapsin I — one of the most prominent neuron-specific phosphoproteins in the brain. Materials and methods and Results: Two weeks after administration of studied proteasome inhibitors, substantial reduction (up to 80%) of synapsin I was ob­served in the rat striatum. Because neurons, and especially dopaminergic ones, are sensitive to the depletion of proteasome function, we assume that observed synapsin I decrease may reflect changes in population of striatal neurons and/or nigrostriatal terminals. Conclusions: Understanding of cellular mechanisms standing behind our findings needs further studies, and could provide valuable contribution to the discussion on the mechanisms linking UPS inhibition and survival of neurons.

    The combination of TRAIL and MG-132 induces apoptosis in both TRAIL-sensitive and TRAIL-resistant human follicular lymphoma cells

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    We have previously shown that the human follicular lymphoma cell line, HF28GFP, is sensitive to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Nevertheless, when the same cells overexpress anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein, Bcl-xL (HF28Bcl-xL), they become resistant to TRAIL. Thus, these cell lines help us to investigate the action of novel apoptosis inducing candidate drugs. In the present study, we examined the effects of MG-132 (a proteasome inhibitor), LiCl (a glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitor) and/or TRAIL on pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins such as Bim and Bid. Here we demonstrate that the combination of MG-132 and TRAIL induced significant apoptotic cell death in both cell lines, HF28GFP and HF28BclxL. Apoptosis correlated with a decrease of phospho-ERK1/2, the accumulation of Bim and translocation of truncated Bid (tBid) and jBid. In addition, the combination of MG-132 and TRAIL seemed to target other apoptotic factors, which led to the accumulation of active capsase-3. Furthermore, co-stimulation of LiCl and TRAIL induced apoptosis in HF28GFP cells. However, HF28Bcl-xL cells were far less sensitive to the combinatorial effects of LiCl and TRAIL. Interestingly, we observed that LiCl did not target Bim and Bid proteins. In conclusion, these data show that targeting of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins simultaneously through a selective proteasome inhibition might help to overcome TRAIL resistance caused by overexpression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. Moreover, the data may provide new strategies to develop targeted therapies against lymphomas.Peer reviewe

    Cytoplasmic Accumulation and Aggregation of TDP-43 upon Proteasome Inhibition in Cultured Neurons

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    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) are characterized by intraneuronal deposition of the nuclear TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) caused by unknown mechanisms. Here, we studied TDP-43 in primary neurons under different stress conditions and found that only proteasome inhibition by MG-132 or lactacystin could induce significant cytoplasmic accumulation of TDP-43, a histopathological hallmark in disease. This cytoplasmic accumulation was accompanied by phosphorylation, ubiquitination and aggregation of TDP-43, recapitulating major features of disease. Proteasome inhibition produced similar effects in both hippocampal and cortical neurons, as well as in immortalized motor neurons. To determine the contribution of TDP-43 to cell death, we reduced TDP-43 expression using small interfering RNA (siRNA), and found that reduced levels of TDP-43 dose-dependently rendered neurons more vulnerable to MG-132. Taken together, our data suggests a role for the proteasome in subcellular localization of TDP-43, and possibly in disease

    Comparative Gene Expression Profiling of Benign and Malignant Lesions Reveals Candidate Therapeutic Compounds for Leiomyosarcoma

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    Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a malignant, soft-tissue tumor for which few effective therapies exist. Previously, we showed that there are three molecular subtypes of LMS. Here, we analyzed genes differentially expressed in each of the three LMS subtypes as compared to benign leiomyomas and then used the Connectivity Map (cmap) to calculate enrichment scores for the 1309 cmap drugs in order to identify candidate molecules with the potential to induce a benign, leiomyoma-like phenotype in LMS cells. 11 drugs were selected and tested for their ability to inhibit the growth of three human LMS cell lines. We identified two drugs with in vitro efficacy against LMS, one of which had a strongly negative enrichment score (Cantharidin) and the other of which had a strongly positive enrichment score (MG-132). Given MG-132's strong inhibitory effect on LMS cell viability, we hypothesized that LMS cells may be sensitive to treatment with other proteasome inhibitors and demonstrated that bortezomib, a clinically-approved proteasome inhibitor not included in the original cmap screen, potently inhibited the viability of the LMS cell lines. These findings suggest that systematically linking LMS subtype-specific expression signatures with drug-associated expression profiles represents a promising approach for the identification of new drugs for LMS

    Postmortem Degradation of Qinchuan Beef Protein by Proteasome and Its Mediated Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway

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    In this study, the Longissimus dorsi muscle of Qinchuan cattle was injected with the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 immediately postmortem and then stored at 4 ℃. The effect of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) on protein degradation as well as changes in the proteasome activity, ubiquitin content and microstructure of the muscle during postmortem storage was explored in order to provide theoretical support for precise postmortem regulation of beef quality. With the extension of storage time, proteasome activity was lower and the contents of total soluble protein and ubiquitin were higher in the MG-132 group than in the control group. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results showed that the band intensity of total soluble proteins between 40 and 250 kDa was greater in the MG-132 group than in the control group; muscle structure was better preserved in the MG-132 group, and the Z line and the boundary between light and dark bands were clearer than those in the control group. The contents of total soluble protein and ubiquitin showed a significantly positive correlation (P < 0.05). In conclusion, postmortem injection of MG-132 inhibited the proteasome activity and the degradation of ubiquitinated proteins in the UPP in Qinchuan beef, which in turn altered protein degradation and attenuated muscle damage. This suggests that the UPP has a potential role in meat quality formation; the proteasome not only degrades proteins by itself alone to destroy beef myofibrillar structure, but also influences postmortem beef protein degradation through mediating the UPP, ultimately affecting postmortem beef quality

    Modulation of TRAIL resistance in colon carcinoma cells: Different contributions of DR4 and DR5

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>rhTRAIL is a therapeutic agent, derived from the TRAIL cytokine, which induces apoptosis in cancer cells by activating the membrane death receptors 4 and 5 (DR4 and DR5). Here, we investigated each receptor's contribution to rhTRAIL sensitivity and rhTRAIL resistance. We assessed whether agonistic DR4 or DR5 antibodies could be used to circumvent rhTRAIL resistance, alone or in combination with various chemotherapies.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Our study was performed in an isogenic model comprised of the SW948 human colon carcinoma cell line and its rhTRAIL resistant sub-line SW948-TR. Effects of rhTRAIL and agonistic DR4/DR5 antibodies on cell viability were measured using MTT assays and identification of morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis, after acridine orange staining. Sensitivity to the different death receptor ligands was stimulated using pretreatment with the cytokine IFN-gamma and the proteasome inhibitor MG-132. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the changes in rhTRAIL sensitivity, alterations in expression levels of targets of interest were measured by Western blot analysis. Co-immunoprecipitation was used to determine the composition of the death-inducing signalling complex at the cell membrane.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>SW948 cells were sensitive to all three of the DR-targeting agents tested, although the agonistic DR5 antibody induced only weak caspase 8 cleavage and limited apoptosis. Surprisingly, agonistic DR4 and DR5 antibodies induced equivalent DISC formation and caspase 8 cleavage at the level of their individual receptors, suggesting impairment of further caspase 8 processing upon DR5 stimulation. SW948-TR cells were cross-resistant to all DR-targeting agents as a result of decreased caspase 8 expression levels. Caspase 8 protein expression was restored by MG-132 and IFN-gamma pretreatment, which also re-established sensitivity to rhTRAIL and agonistic DR4 antibody in SW948-TR. Surprisingly, MG-132 but not IFN-gamma could also increase DR5-mediated apoptosis in SW948-TR.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>These results highlight a critical difference between DR4- and DR5-mediated apoptotic signaling modulation, with possible implications for future combinatorial regimens.</p
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