39,447 research outputs found

    Comparison of Nuclear Matrix Protein-22 and Urine Cytology in Diagnosing Bladder Cancer

    Full text link
    Background: Urine cytology (UC) is a classic marker used to detect bladder Malignancy through urine examination microscopically at the presence of Malignant transitional cells that are released. UC is also used to evaluate recurrence after past treatment. A new method that is simpler, faster and easier is by measuring protein in urine produced by Malignant cells, namely nuclear matrix protein-22 (NMP-22). The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of NMP-22 and UC to histopathological biopsy in diagnosing bladder carcinoma and to evaluate whether the NMP-22 test could be used for bladder carcinoma screening and recurrence monitoring.Methods: Diagnostic tests on 24 suspected bladder Malignancies were performed by taking urine samples for NMP22 examination and UC. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative NMP-22 and UC on histopathological biopsy were analyzed.Results: Positive results were obtained in 21 (87.5%) and negative in 3 (12.5%) NMP22 examinations. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of NMP-22 on histopathological biopsy were 95%; 67%, 95%, 67%. Sensitivity, specificity,positive predictive value and negative UC on histopathological biopsy were 38.1%; 100%, 100%, 18.8%.Conclusions: NMP-22 sensitivity is higher than UC in diagnosing bladder carcinoma. NMP-22 can be used for bladder carcinoma screening and for recurrence monitorin

    Influenza A matrix protein M1 induces lipid membrane deformation via protein multimerization

    Get PDF
    The matrix protein M1 of the Influenza A virus (IAV) is supposed to mediate viral assembly and budding at the plasma membrane (PM) of infected cells. In order for a new viral particle to form, the PM lipid bilayer has to bend into a vesicle toward the extracellular side. Studies in cellular models have proposed that different viral proteins might be responsible for inducing membrane curvature in this context (including M1), but a clear consensus has not been reached. In the present study, we use a combination of fluorescence microscopy, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) and scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (sFCS) to investigate M1-induced membrane deformation in biophysical models of the PM. Our results indicate that M1 is indeed able to cause membrane curvature in lipid bilayers containing negatively charged lipids, in the absence of other viral components. Furthermore, we prove that protein binding is not sufficient to induce membrane restructuring. Rather, it appears that stable M1–M1 interactions and multimer formation are required in order to alter the bilayer three-dimensional structure, through the formation of a protein scaffold. Finally, our results suggest that, in a physiological context, M1-induced membrane deformation might be modulated by the initial bilayer curvature and the lateral organization of membrane components (i.e. the presence of lipid domains)

    Re-defining the Golgi complex in Plasmodium falciparum using the novel Golgi marker PfGRASP

    Get PDF
    Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of malaria, relies on a sophisticated protein secretion system for host cell invasion and transformation. Although the parasite displays a secretory pathway similar to those of all eukaryotic organisms, a classical Golgi apparatus has never been described. We identified and characterised the putative Golgi matrix protein PfGRASP, a homologue of the Golgi re-assembly stacking protein (GRASP) family. We show that PfGRASP is expressed as a 70 kDa protein throughout the asexual life cycle of the parasite. We generated PfGRASP-GFP-expressing transgenic parasites and showed that this protein is localised to a single, juxtanuclear compartment in ring-stage parasites. The PfGRASP compartment is distinct from the ER, restricted within the boundaries of the parasite and colocalises with the cis-Golgi marker ERD2. Correct subcellular localisation of this Golgi matrix protein depends on a cross-species conserved functional myristoylation motif and is insensitive to Brefeldin A. Taken together our results define the Golgi apparatus in Plasmodium and depict the morphological organisation of the organelle throughout the asexual life cycle of the parasite

    Lateral interactions govern self-assembly of the bacterial biofilm matrix protein BslA

    Get PDF
    The soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis is a model organism to investigate the formation of biofilms, the predominant form of microbial life. The secreted protein BslA self-assembles at the surface of the biofilm to give the B. subtilis biofilm its characteristic hydrophobicity. To understand the mechanism of BslA self-assembly at interfaces, here we built a molecular model based on the previous BslA crystal structure and the crystal structure of the BslA paralogue YweA that we determined. Our analysis revealed two conserved protein-protein interaction interfaces supporting BslA self-assembly into an infinite 2-dimensional lattice that fits previously determined transmission microscopy images. Molecular dynamics simulations and in vitro protein assays further support our model of BslA elastic film formation, while mutagenesis experiments highlight the importance of the identified interactions for biofilm structure. Based on this knowledge, YweA was engineered to form more stable elastic films and rescue biofilm structure in bslA deficient strains. These findings shed light on protein film assembly and will inform the development of BslA technologies which range from surface coatings to emulsions in fast-moving consumer goods.</p

    Cell response to RGD density in cross-linked artificial extracellular matrix protein films

    Get PDF
    This study examines the adhesion, spreading, and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells on cross-linked films of artificial extracellular matrix (aECM) proteins. The aECM proteins described here were designed for application in small-diameter grafts and are composed of elastin-like structural repeats and fibronectin cell-binding domains. aECM-RGD contains the RGD sequence derived from fibronectin; the negative control protein aECM-RDG contains a scrambled cell-binding domain. The covalent attachment of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to aECM substrates reduced nonspecific cell adhesion to aECM-RDG-PEG but did not preclude sequence-specific adhesion of endothelial cells to aECM-RGD-PEG. Variation in ligand density was accomplished by the mixing of aECM-RGD-PEG and aECM-RDG-PEG prior to cross-linking. Increasing the density of RGD domains in cross-linked films resulted in more robust cell adhesion and spreading but did not affect cell migration speed. Control of cell-binding domain density in aECM proteins can thus be used to modulate cell adhesion and spreading and will serve as an important design tool as these materials are further developed for use in surgery, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine

    Crystal Structures of Influenza A Virus Matrix Protein M1: Variations on a Theme

    Get PDF
    Matrix protein 1 (M1) of the influenza A virus plays multiple roles in virion assembly and infection. Interest in the pH dependence of M1\u27s multiple functions led us to study the effect of subtle pH changes on M1 structure, resulting in the elucidation of a unique low-pH crystal structure of the N1-165-domain of A/WSN/33 (H1N1) M1 that has never been reported. Although the 2.2 Å crystal structure of M1 N-terminus shows a dimer with the two monomers interacting in a face-to-face fashion at low pH as observed earlier, a 44° rotation of the second monomer has led to a significantly different dimer interface that possibly affects dimer stability. More importantly, while one of the monomers is fully defined, the N-terminal half of the second monomer shows considerable disorder that appears inherent in the protein and is potentially physiologically relevant. Such disorder has not been observed in any other previously reported structure at either low or high pH conditions, despite similar crystallization pH conditions. By comparing our novel N1-165-domain structure with other low-pH or neutral-pH M1 structures, it appears that M1 can energetically access different monomer and dimer conformations, as well as oligomeric states, with varying degree of similarities. The study reported here provides further insights into M1 oligomerization that may be essential for viral propagation and infectivity

    Lateral interactions govern self-assembly of the bacterial biofilm matrix protein BslA

    Get PDF
    The soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis is a model organism to investigate the formation of biofilms, the predominant form of microbial life. The secreted protein BslA self-assembles at the surface of the biofilm to give the B. subtilis biofilm its characteristic hydrophobicity. To understand the mechanism of BslA self-assembly at interfaces, here we built a molecular model based on the previous BslA crystal structure and the crystal structure of the BslA paralogue YweA that we determined. Our analysis revealed two conserved protein-protein interaction interfaces supporting BslA self-assembly into an infinite 2-dimensional lattice that fits previously determined transmission microscopy images. Molecular dynamics simulations and in vitro protein assays further support our model of BslA elastic film formation, while mutagenesis experiments highlight the importance of the identified interactions for biofilm structure. Based on this knowledge, YweA was engineered to form more stable elastic films and rescue biofilm structure in bslA deficient strains. These findings shed light on protein film assembly and will inform the development of BslA technologies which range from surface coatings to emulsions in fast-moving consumer goods.</p

    Alterations of membrane curvature during influenza virus budding

    Get PDF
    Influenza A virus belongs to the Orthomyxoviridae family. It is an enveloped virus that contains a segmented and negative-sense RNA genome. Influenza A viruses cause annual epidemics and occasional major pandemics, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and have a significant financial impact on society. Assembly and budding of new viral particles are a complex and multi-step process involving several host and viral factors. Influenza viruses use lipid raft domains in the apical plasma membrane of polarized epithelial cells as sites of budding. Two viral glycoproteins, haemagglutinin and neuraminidase, concentrate in lipid rafts, causing alterations in membrane curvature and initiation of the budding process. Matrix protein 1 (M1), which forms the inner structure of the virion, is then recruited to the site followed by incorporation of the viral ribonucleoproteins and matrix protein 2 (M2). M1 can alter membrane curvature and progress budding, whereas lipid raft-associated M2 stabilizes the site of budding, allowing for proper assembly of the virion. In the later stages of budding, M2 is localized to the neck of the budding virion at the lipid phase boundary, where it causes negative membrane curvature, leading to scission and virion release

    Extracellular Matrix Protein Tenascin C Increases Phagocytosis Mediated by CD47 Loss of Function in Glioblastoma.

    Get PDF
    Glioblastomas (GBM) are highly infiltrated by myeloid-derived innate immune cells that contribute to the immunosuppressive nature of the brain tumor microenvironment (TME). CD47 has been shown to mediate immune evasion, as the CD47-SIRPα axis prevents phagocytosis of tumor cells by macrophages and other myeloid cells. In this study, we established CD47 homozygous deletion (CD47-/-) in human and mouse GBM cells and investigated the impact of eliminating the "don't eat me" signal on tumor growth and tumor-TME interactions. CD47 knockout (KO) did not significantly alter tumor cell proliferation in vitro but significantly increased phagocytosis of tumor cells by macrophages in cocultures. Compared with CD47 wild-type xenografts, orthotopic xenografts derived from CD47-/- tumor cells grew significantly slower with enhanced tumor cell phagocytosis and increased recruitment of M2-like tumor-associated microglia/macrophages (TAM). CD47 KO increased tumor-associated extracellular matrix protein tenascin C (TNC) in xenografts, which was further examined in vitro. CD47 loss of function upregulated TNC expression in tumor cells via a Notch pathway-mediated mechanism. Depletion of TNC in tumor cells enhanced the growth of CD47-/- xenografts in vivo and decreased the number of TAM. TNC knockdown also inhibited phagocytosis of CD47-/- tumor cells in cocultures. Furthermore, TNC stimulated release of proinflammatory factors including TNFα via a Toll-like receptor 4 and STAT3-dependent mechanism in human macrophage cells. These results reveal a vital role for TNC in immunomodulation in brain tumor biology and demonstrate the prominence of the TME extracellular matrix in affecting the antitumor function of brain innate immune cells. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings link TNC to CD47-driven phagocytosis and demonstrate that TNC affects the antitumor function of brain TAM, facilitating the development of novel innate immune system-based therapies for brain tumors
    • …
    corecore