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    Autoimmunity, Autoinflammation, and Infection in Uveitis

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    Funding/Support: No funding or grant support. Financial Disclosures: John V. Forrester has received an honorarium for lecturing from Janssen (London, UK). Lucia Kuffova has undertaken consultancy work for Abbvie (London, UK). Andrew D. Dick has undertaken consultancy work for Abbvie (London, UK), Roche (London, UK), and Genentech (London, UK) and has received honoraria from Janssen (London, UK) and Abbvie (London, UK). The authors attest that they meet the current ICMJE criteria for authorship.Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    London Challenge: transforming London secondary schools: London data

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    Modulation of plant autophagy during pathogen attack

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    In plants, the highly conserved catabolic process of autophagy has long been known as a means of maintaining cellular homeostasis and coping with abiotic stress conditions. Accumulating evidence has linked autophagy to immunity against invading pathogens, regulating plant cell death, and antimicrobial defences. In turn, it appears that phytopathogens have evolved ways not only to evade autophagic clearance but also to modulate and co-opt autophagy for their own benefit. In this review, we summarize and discuss the emerging discoveries concerning how pathogens modulate both host and self-autophagy machineries to colonize their host plants, delving into the arms race that determines the fate of interorganismal interaction.Fil: Leary, Alexandre Y. Imperial College London; Reino UnidoFil: Sanguankiattichai, Nattapong. University of Oxford; Reino UnidoFil: Duggan, Cian. Imperial College London; Reino UnidoFil: Tumtas, Yasin. Imperial College London; Reino UnidoFil: Pandey, Pooja. Imperial College London; Reino UnidoFil: Segretin, Maria Eugenia. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Instituto de Investigaciones en Ingeniería Genética y Biología Molecular "Dr. Héctor N. Torres"; ArgentinaFil: Salguero Linares, Jose. Imperial College London; Reino UnidoFil: Savage, Zachary D. Imperial College London; Reino UnidoFil: Yow, Rui Jin. Imperial College London; Reino UnidoFil: Bozkurt, Tolga O.. Imperial College London; Reino Unid

    Young People's participation, progression and transition to higher study and work: a London perspective

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    This report provides an initial exploration of issues related to young people’s 14+ participation, progression and transition across London and the role of education providers, employers and the youth labour market in this process. The report was commissioned by London Councils’ Young People’s Education and Skills Board and its findings endorse the priorities identified in London – Being the Best: The Vision for Young People’s Education and Skills in London. The report uses a range of national and international literature, national data and, where available, London-specific data and reports, including those published by London Councils, to tease out key messages for policy-makers and practitioners. It also identifies areas where action needs to be taken to improve the education and life-chances of young Londoners, in particular 14-19 year olds, and where further research is required

    London’s foundations protecting the geodiversity of the capital

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    This report describes a geodiversity audit of London commissioned by a partnership led by the Greater London Authority (GLA), which includes the British Geological Survey (BGS), Natural England, Government Office for London, London Biodiversity Partnership, London Borough of Lambeth, Harrow and Hillingdon Geological Society, South London London RIGS Groups, Hanson UK and Queen Mary College, University of London. The project was funded by an Aggregates Levy Sustainability Fund grant from Natural England plus additional support from the GLA, BGS and Natural England London Region. The audit began with a review of the available geodiversity documentation for London including: BGS field maps, databases and publications; Regional Important Geological Sites (RIGS) Group information; Natural England Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) and Geological Conservation Review (GCR) documentation; and documentation and data from the GLA and London Boroughs. An initial list of around 470 sites with potential for geodiversity value was compiled from this information. This list was then narrowed down to 100 for further assessment by exporting site locations to a GIS and cross-checking against digital aerial photography backed up by BGS staff local geological expertise. Using the procedure set out in this report field auditing was carried out by BGS staff and the South London RIGS Group between November 2007 and April 2008. From the list of 100 sites, 35 sites were found to be suitable for detailed auditing. Harrow and Hillingdon Geological Society audited a further site in November 2008, bringing the total to 36 sites. Using the criteria set out in this report 14 of the 36 sites are recommended for designation as Regionally Important Geological/geomorphological Sites (RIGS) in borough Local Development Documents. Of the 33 London boroughs, RIGS are recommended in eight, with five in Bromley, three in Croydon and one each in Lewisham, Ealing, Greenwich, Harrow, Hillingdon and Bexley. Using the criteria set out in this report 15 of the 36 sites have the potential to be designated as Locally Important Geological Sites (LIGS). These sites are located in nine boroughs, three in Waltham Forest, two in Bromley, two in Islington and one each in Barnet, Lewisham, Redbridge, Wandsworth, Southwark and Sutton. Planning proposals should have regard to geodiversity in order to implement strategic and local policies. Sites should be protected, managed and enhanced and, where ppropriate, new development should provide improvements to the geodiversity value of a site. This can include measures that promote public access, study, interpretation and appreciation of geodiversity. In addition to individual sites of geodiversity interest, Greater London has distinctive natural landscapes shaped by geological processes, such as undulating chalk downlands with dry valleys in south London, and river terraces forming long flat areas separated by steeper areas of terrace front slopes. This natural topographic geodiversity underlying London should be understood, respected and only altered in that knowledge with full knowledge of it origin and form. Planners are encouraged to use authentic contouring in restoration work and new landscaping schemes, maintain the contributions of natural topography, rock outcrops, landscape features, and to maintain soil quality, quantity and function

    The metropolitan geographies of elite shopping: Mary Leigh and Roger Newdigate in Georgian London

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    The importance of London as a source of elite goods is a commonplace. Work by Berry, Walsh, Vickery and Greig has painted a vivid picture of the mechanisms through which elite women in particular sought out metropolitan suppliers. It has also suggested a variety of motivations for their metropolitan tastes. We also have a good idea of the changing retail geography of London, with west-end shops becoming increasingly prominent through the eighteenth century. Less clear are the ways in which these two were linked through the spatial practices of consumers: where, precisely, did elites shop? How was this linked to their place of residence, experience of London or longevity in the city? And what difference did gender make? This paper explores these questions by mapping the metropolitan shopping habits of two elite families with estates in rural Warwickshire and houses in London: the Leighs of Stoneleigh Abbey and Newdigates of Arbury Hall. I argue that London retailers were both local and metropolitan – geographies of elite shopping being linked to the London residence and to key retail locations – and that men and women had different shopping geographies in part because of their different engagements in and with London

    Churchill and the Historians

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    Review of Robert Blake & Roger Louis, eds., Churchill: A Major Reassessment of his Life in Peace and War. London: Oxford University Press, 1992; Tuvia Ben-Moshe, Churchill: Strategy and History. Boulder, CO: Lynne Reinner Publishers, 1992; Richard Lamb, Churchill as War Leader: Right or Wrong? London: Bloomsbury, 1991; John Charmley, Churchill, The End of Glory: A Political Biography. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1992

    Neighbourhoods and self rated health: a comparison of public sector employees in London and Helsinki

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    Study objective: Mortality and morbidity vary across neighbourhoods and larger residential areas. Effects of area deprivation on health may vary across countries, because of greater spatial separation of people occupying high and low socioeconomic positions and differences in the provision of local services and facilities. Neighbourhood variations in health and the contribution of residents' characteristics and neighbourhood indicators were compared in London and Helsinki, two settings where inequality and welfare policies differ.Design: Data from two cohorts were used to investigate associations between self rated health and neighbourhood indicators using a multilevel approach.Setting: London and Helsinki.Participants: From the Whitehall II study (London, aged 39-63) and the Helsinki health study (aged 40-60).Main results: Socioeconomic segregation was higher in London than in Helsinki. Age and sex adjusted differences in self rated health between neighbourhoods were also greater in London. Independent of individual socioeconomic position, neighbourhood unemployment, proportion of residents in manual occupations, and proportion of single households were associated with health. In pooled data, residence in a neighbourhood with highest unemployment was associated with an odds ratio of less than good self rated health of 1.51 (95% CI 1.30 to 1.75). High rates of single parenthood were associated with health in London but not in Helsinki.Conclusions: Neighbourhood socioeconomic context was associated with health in both countries, with some evidence of greater neighbourhood effects in London. Greater socioeconomic segregation in London may have emergent effects at the neighbourhood level. Local and national social policies may reduce, or restrict, inequality and segregation between areas