81,254 research outputs found

    Use of Carnobacterium piscicola to limit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in mussel products : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Microbiology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

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    Bacteria were screened in order to find an organism antagonistic to Listeria monocytogenes which could be applied to mussel products and enhance their safety, especially when temperature-abused. A Listeria monocytogenes isolate from the seafood industry was selected as the target organism. Strains of Lactobacillus reuteri and Enterococcus fecium were screened on plates incubated at 35°C and 10°C for anti-listerial compounds, but none were found. A non-bacteriocinogenic strain of Carnobacterium piscicola, A9b- was selected as the antagonist for detailed examination of growth in broth, agar and mussel systems at 10°C. This temperature was chosen to represent temperature abuse of refrigerated products. To distinguish between the growth of the Carnobacterium piscicola strain and wild-type Listeria monocytogenes a "semi-selective" agar was developed using phenol-red indicator, and mannitol as the sole carbohydrate source. Growth rates of Carnobacterium piscicola and Listeria monocytogenes were compared when grown alone and as a co-culture in agar and broth. Growth rates of Listeria monocytogenes when grown alone, and in the presence of Carnobacterium piscicola, were determined on mussels. Regression analyses were done for the inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by Carnobacterium piscicola. In all cases Carnobacterium piscicola significantly inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes (P broth = 0.018, P agar <0.001, P mussels < 0.001). Growth of both organisms was faster in broth, than on mussels or agar. The greatest inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes was observed in broth reaching log₁₀4.8 at 41 hours of incubation, prior to decreasing after this time. In agar and mussels the inhibition lasted longer and had not decreased at the end of the trial. The log₁₀ reduction in growth of Listeria monocytogenes in agar was measured at 3.4 and in mussels measured at 1.6. These results were statistically significant (P<0.001 for all). Inhibition of wild type Listeria monocytogenes was also shown in broth when a much lower concentration of Carnobacterium piscicola was used. These results should be considered as preliminary and further confirmatory work should be done. However, Carnobacterium piscicola A9b- shows promise as an antagonistic organism to assist in the control of Listeria monocytogenes in mussel products along with industry-accepted good hygienic practices

    Development of ListeriaBase and comparative analysis of Listeria monocytogenes

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    Background: Listeria consists of both pathogenic and non-pathogenic species. Reports of similarities between the genomic content between some pathogenic and non-pathogenic species necessitates the investigation of these species at the genomic level to understand the evolution of virulence-associated genes. With Listeria genome data growing exponentially, comparative genomic analysis may give better insights into evolution, genetics and phylogeny of Listeria spp., leading to better management of the diseases caused by them. Description: With this motivation, we have developed ListeriaBase, a web Listeria genomic resource and analysis platform to facilitate comparative analysis of Listeria spp. ListeriaBase currently houses 850,402 protein-coding genes, 18,113 RNAs and 15,576 tRNAs from 285 genome sequences of different Listeria strains. An AJAX-based real time search system implemented in ListeriaBase facilitates searching of this huge genomic data. Our in-house designed comparative analysis tools such as Pairwise Genome Comparison (PGC) tool allowing comparison between two genomes, Pathogenomics Profiling Tool (PathoProT) for comparing the virulence genes, and ListeriaTree for phylogenic classification, were customized and incorporated in ListeriaBase facilitating comparative genomic analysis of Listeria spp. Interestingly, we identified a unique genomic feature in the L. monocytogenes genomes in our analysis. The Auto protein sequences of the serotype 4 and the non-serotype 4 strains of L. monocytogenes possessed unique sequence signatures that can differentiate the two groups. We propose that the aut gene may be a potential gene marker for differentiating the serotype 4 strains from other serotypes of L. monocytogenes. Conclusions: ListeriaBase is a useful resource and analysis platform that can facilitate comparative analysis of Listeria for the scientific communities. We have successfully demonstrated some key utilities of ListeriaBase. The knowledge that we obtained in the analyses of L. monocytogenes may be important for functional works of this human pathogen in future. ListeriaBase is currently available at http://listeria.um.edu.my

    Development of a nucleic acid lateral flow immunoassay for simultaneous detection of Listeria spp. and Listeriamonocytogenes in food

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    We present a new nucleic acid lateral flow immunoassay (NALFIA) for the assessment of listeria contamination. The detection procedure starts with enrichment of sample in Half Fraser broth (24 h). Following isolation of DNA, a duplex PCR is performed with two labelled primer sets, one generic and directed to a specific sequence of the gene encoding 16S rRNA from Listeria spp. and the other specific and directed to a part of the prfA gene encoding the central virulence gene regulator from the food pathogen Listeria monocytogenes (3.5 h). The PCR solution is directly added to the one-step assay device and the appearance of a grey/black line is indicative of the presence of specific amplicons (max 15 min). In all tests performed, the method correctly identified L. monocytogenes and strains of Listeria spp. PCR material of over 20 food samples was tested by NALFIA. The method proved to be useful for the detection of L. monocytogenes in different kinds of food sample

    ANALISIS PENGARUHDEBT TO EQUITY RATIO (DER), DAN RETURN ON EQUITY(ROE) TERHADAP HARGA SAHAM PADAPERUSAHAAN OTOMOTIF YANG TERDAFTAR DI BURSA EFEK INDONESIA (BEI) PERIODE 2011-2014

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    Analysis of Debt To Equity Ratio (DER) and Return on Equity (ROE) to Stock Price In Automotive Company Listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange Period 2011-2014. Widia Listeria, 2016 (+40Page) [email protected] This study aims to explain the Influence Analysis of Debt To Equity Ratio (DER) and Return on Equity (ROE) Share Price At Automotive Company Listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (BEI) Period 2011-2014. The population in this study consisted of 13 companies. Purpose sampling is used as a sampling technique with criteria (1) Automotive Company in Indonesia Stock Exchange (2) Issue a complete financial reports 2011-2014. There are 11 elected and the company meets the criteria to be sampled. This study uses secondary data analysis technique used is multiple regression analysis and hypothesis testing using t test and partial test f simultaneously with the level of significance of 5% and test koefisiesi determination. The results showed that the Debt To Equity Ratio (DER) a significant negative effect on stock prices, and Return on Equity (ROE) and a significant positive effect on stock prices. Simultaneously Debt To Equity Ratio (DER) and Return on Equity (ROE) positive and significant impact on stock prices at Automotive Company listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange 2011-2014 period. At the level of Significance Debt To Equity Ratio (DER) has a value of 0.010%, and Return on Equity (ROE) has a value of 0.000%. The predictive ability of both variables on stock prices by 36%, as indicated by the adjusted R-square of 36% while the remaining 64% are influenced by other factors not included in the study variables

    Brain abscess following rituximab infusion in a patient with pemphigus vulgaris.

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    BackgroundImmunocompromised patients are at increased risk for developing meningitis or, rarely, brain abscess with opportunistic organisms like Listeria monocytogenes.Case reportA 52 year-old Saudi Arabian woman who was diagnosed with pemphigus vulgaris and diabetes and had been on prednisolone and azathioprine for about 4 years. She presented with headache, low-grade fever, and left-sided weakness 2 weeks after receiving the second dose of rituximab infusion. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an enhanced space-occupying lesion with multiple small cyst-like structures and vasogenic edema in the right temporoparietal area. Her blood culture was positive for Listeria monocytogenes, and a brain biopsy showed necrotic tissues with pus and inflammatory cells. She recovered after a 6-week course of antibiotics with ampicillin and gentamycin.ConclusionsBrain abscess due to Listeria monocytogenes is a risk that should be considered when adding rituximab to the regimen of a patient who is already Immunocompromised

    Inhibition of Listeria in cold-smoked salmon using liquid smoke and isoeugenol

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    Thesis (M.S.) University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2000Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen, ubiquitous in nature and sometimes found in seafood. Cold-smoked salmon products have few barriers to inhibit pathogen growth. This study investigated the antilisterial effects of liquid smoke and the phenolic compound isoeugenol. Five commercial liquid smokes were tested 'in vitro' and the most inhibitory to Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115 and L. innocua ATCC 33090 was Charsol Supreme. Chum salmon samples (100-g each) were dipped for 15 seconds at varying concentrations of liquid smoke, processed, and analyzed for L. innocua. Liquid smoke concentrations of 60-100% reduced L. innocua by 3-logs in the final product. Dwell times of 15 seconds to 5 minutes using 60% liquid smoke gradually decreased listerial survival. Isoeugenol was antilisterial 'in vitro, ' but lacked synergism with liquid smoke in cold-smoked salmon. Charsol Supreme formed an antilisterial barrier in cold-smoked salmon, and may be a useful application to commercial products

    Activation of the Listeria monocytogenes Virulence Program by a Reducing Environment.

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    Upon entry into the host cell cytosol, the facultative intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes coordinates the expression of numerous essential virulence factors by allosteric binding of glutathione (GSH) to the Crp-Fnr family transcriptional regulator PrfA. Here, we report that robust virulence gene expression can be recapitulated by growing bacteria in a synthetic medium containing GSH or other chemical reducing agents. Bacteria grown under these conditions were 45-fold more virulent in an acute murine infection model and conferred greater immunity to a subsequent lethal challenge than bacteria grown in conventional media. During cultivation in vitro, PrfA activation was completely dependent on the intracellular levels of GSH, as a glutathione synthase mutant (ΔgshF) was activated by exogenous GSH but not reducing agents. PrfA activation was repressed in a synthetic medium supplemented with oligopeptides, but the repression was relieved by stimulation of the stringent response. These data suggest that cytosolic L. monocytogenes interprets a combination of metabolic and redox cues as a signal to initiate robust virulence gene expression in vivoIMPORTANCE Intracellular pathogens are responsible for much of the worldwide morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. These pathogens have evolved various strategies to proliferate within individual cells of the host and avoid the host immune response. Through cellular invasion or the use of specialized secretion machinery, all intracellular pathogens must access the host cell cytosol to establish their replicative niches. Determining how these pathogens sense and respond to the intracellular compartment to establish a successful infection is critical to our basic understanding of the pathogenesis of each organism and for the rational design of therapeutic interventions. Listeria monocytogenes is a model intracellular pathogen with robust in vitro and in vivo infection models. Studies of the host-sensing and downstream signaling mechanisms evolved by L. monocytogenes often describe themes of pathogenesis that are broadly applicable to less tractable pathogens. Here, we describe how bacteria use external redox states as a cue to activate virulence
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