859 research outputs found

    ADAR1 restricts LINE-1 retrotransposition

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    Abstract Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are involved in RNA editing that converts adenosines to inosines in double-stranded RNAs. ADAR1 was demonstrated to be functional on different viruses exerting either antiviral or proviral effects. Concerning HIV-1, several studies showed that ADAR1 favors viral replication. The aim of this study was to investigate the composition of the ADAR1 ribonucleoprotein complex during HIV-1 expression. By using a dual-tag affinity purification procedure in cells expressing HIV-1 followed by mass spectrometry analysis, we identified 14 non-ribosomal ADAR1-interacting proteins, most of which are novel. A significant fraction of these proteins were previously demonstrated to be associated to the Long INterspersed Element 1 (LINE1 or L1) ribonucleoparticles and to regulate the life cycle of L1 retrotransposons that continuously re-enter host-genome.Hence, we investigated the function of ADAR1 in the regulation of L1 activity.By using different cell-culture based retrotransposition assays in HeLa cells, we demonstrated a novel function of ADAR1 as suppressor of L1 retrotransposition. Apparently, this inhibitory mechanism does not occur through ADAR1 editing activity. Furthermore, we showed that ADAR1 binds the basal L1 RNP complex. Overall, these data support the role of ADAR1 as regulator of L1 life cycle

    Nucleoside Analogue Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors Differentially Inhibit Human LINE-1 Retrotransposition

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    Intact LINE-1 elements are the only retrotransposons encoded by the human genome known to be capable of autonomous replication. Numerous cases of genetic disease have been traced to gene disruptions caused by LINE-1 retrotransposition events in germ-line cells. In addition, genomic instability resulting from LINE-1 retrotransposition in somatic cells has been proposed as a contributing factor to oncogenesis and to cancer progression. LINE-1 element activity may also play a role in normal physiology. LINE-1 retrotransposition reporter assay, we evaluated the abilities of several antiretroviral compounds to inhibit LINE-1 retrotransposition. The nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (nRTIs): stavudine, zidovudine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, and lamivudine all inhibited LINE-1 retrotransposition with varying degrees of potencies, while the non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor nevirapine showed no effect.Our data demonstrates the ability for nRTIs to suppress LINE-1 retrotransposition. This is immediately applicable to studies aimed at examining potential roles for LINE-1 retrotransposition in physiological processes. In addition, our data raises novel safety considerations for nRTIs based on their potential to disrupt physiological processes involving LINE-1 retrotransposition

    LINE-1 Retrotransposition Activity in Human Genomes

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    SummaryHighly active (i.e., “hot”) long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) sequences comprise the bulk of retrotransposition activity in the human genome; however, the abundance of hot L1s in the human population remains largely unexplored. Here, we used a fosmid-based, paired-end DNA sequencing strategy to identify 68 full-length L1s that are differentially present among individuals but are absent from the human genome reference sequence. The majority of these L1s were highly active in a cultured cell retrotransposition assay. Genotyping 26 elements revealed that two L1s are only found in Africa and that two more are absent from the H952 subset of the Human Genome Diversity Panel. Therefore, these results suggest that hot L1s are more abundant in the human population than previously appreciated, and that ongoing L1 retrotransposition continues to be a major source of interindividual genetic variation

    Engineered LINE-1 retrotransposition in nondividing human neurons

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    Half the human genome is made of transposable elements (TEs), whose ongoing activity continues to impact our genome. LINE-1 (or L1) is an autonomous non-LTR retrotransposon in the human genome, comprising 17% of its genomic mass and containing an average of 80-100 active L1s per average genome that provide a source of inter-individual variation. New LINE-1 insertions are thought to accumulate mostly during human embryogenesis. Surprisingly, the activity of L1s can further impact the somatic human brain genome. However, it is currently unknown whether L1 can retrotranspose in other somatic healthy tissues or if L1 mobilization is restricted to neuronal precursor cells (NPCs) in the human brain. Here, we took advantage of an engineered L1 retrotransposition assay to analyze L1 mobilization rates in human mesenchymal (MSCs) and hematopoietic (HSCs) somatic stem cells. Notably, we have observed that L1 expression and engineered retrotransposition is much lower in both MSCs and HSCs when compared to NPCs. Remarkably, we have further demonstrated for the first time that engineered L1s can retrotranspose efficiently in mature nondividing neuronal cells. Thus, these findings suggest that the degree of somatic mosaicism and the impact of L1 retrotransposition in the human brain is likely much higher than previously thought.We thank current members of the J.L.G.-P. laboratory for helpful discussions. We also thank Drs. Geoffrey Faulkner (Mater Research, Australia) and John V. Moran (University of Michigan) for sharing unpublished data and for critical input during the project; Ms. Raquel Marrero (Microscopy Unit, Genyo) for technical support; Simon Mendez-Ferrer (CNIC, Spain) for providing total RNA isolated from human mesenspheres; Dr. Oliver Weichenrieder (Max-Planck, Tubingen, Germany) for providing a polyclonal L1-ORF1p antibody; and Dr. Aurelien Doucet (IRCAN, Nice, France) for providing a plasmid containing an UBC-driven EGFP retrotransposition indicator cassette. J.L.G. was funded by the US Department of Defense, Breast Cancer Research Program (award #BC051386), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (1R03NS087290-01), and the ALS Therapy Alliance (2013-F-067). A.M. has been partially funded by a Marie Curie IRG project (FP7-PEOPLE-2007-4-3-IRG: SOMATIC LINE-1). J.L.G.-P's laboratory is supported by CICE-FEDER-P09-CTS-4980, CICE-FEDER-P12-CTS-2256, Plan Nacional de I+D+I 2008–2011 and 2013–2016 (FIS-FEDER-PI11/01489 and FIS-FEDER-PI14/02152), PCIN-2014-115-ERA-NET NEURON II, the European Research Council (ERC-Consolidator ERC-STG-2012-233764), by an International Early Career Scientist grant from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (IECS-55007420), and by The Wellcome Trust–University of Edinburgh Institutional Strategic Support Fund (ISFF2).S

    Endonuclease-independent LINE-1 retrotransposition at mammalian telomeres

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    Long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) elements are abundant, non-long-terminal-repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons that comprise 17% of human DNA(1). The average human genome contains similar to 80-100 retrotransposition- competent L1s (ref. 2), and they mobilize by a process that uses both the L1 endonuclease and reverse transcriptase, termed target-site primed reverse transcription(3-5). We have previously reported an efficient, endonuclease-independent L1 retrotransposition pathway (ENi) in certain Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines that are defective in the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway of DNA double-strand-break repair(6). Here we have characterized ENi retrotransposition events generated in V3 CHO cells, which are deficient in DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) activity and have both dysfunctional telomeres and an NHEJ defect. Notably, similar to 30% of ENi retrotransposition events insert in an orientation-specific manner adjacent to a perfect telomere repeat (5'-TTAGGG-3'). Similar insertions were not detected among ENi retrotransposition events generated in controls or in XR-1 CHO cells deficient for XRCC4, an NHEJ factor that is required for DNA ligation but has no known function in telomere maintenance. Furthermore, transient expression of a dominant-negative allele of human TRF2 ( also called TERF2) in XRCC4-deficient XR-1 cells, which disrupts telomere capping, enables telomere-associated ENi retrotransposition events. These data indicate that L1s containing a disabled endonuclease can use dysfunctional telomeres as an integration substrate. The findings highlight similarities between the mechanism of ENi retrotransposition and the action of telomerase, because both processes can use a 3' OH for priming reverse transcription at either internal DNA lesions or chromosome ends(7,8). Thus, we propose that ENi retrotransposition is an ancestral mechanism of RNA-mediated DNA repair associated with non-LTR retrotransposons that may have been used before the acquisition of an endonuclease domain.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/62964/1/nature05560.pd

    All APOBEC3 family proteins differentially inhibit LINE-1 retrotransposition

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    Approximately 17% of the human genome is comprised of long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE-1, L1) non-LTR retrotransposons. L1 retrotransposition is known to be the cause of several genetic diseases, such as hemophilia A, Duchene muscular dystrophy, and so on. The L1 retroelements are also able to cause colon cancer, suggesting that L1 transposition could occur not only in germ cells, but also in somatic cells if innate immunity would not function appropriately. The mechanisms of L1 transposition restriction in the normal cells, however, are not fully defined. We here show that antiretroviral innate proteins, human APOBEC3 (hA3) family members, from hA3A to hA3H, differentially reduce the level of L1 retrotransposition that does not correlate either with antiviral activity against Vif-deficient HIV-1 and murine leukemia virus, or with patterns of subcellular localization. Importantly, hA3G protein inhibits L1 retrotransposition, in striking contrast to the recent reports. Inhibitory effect of hA3 family members on L1 transposition might not be due to deaminase activity, but due to novel mechanism(s). Thus, we conclude that all hA3 proteins act to differentially suppress uncontrolled transposition of L1 elements

    RNase H2, mutated in Aicardi-Goutières syndrome, promotes LINE-1 retrotransposition

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    Long INterspersed Element class 1 (LINE-1) elements are a type of abundant retrotransposons active in mammalian genomes. An average human genome contains ~100 retrotransposition-competent LINE-1s, whose activity is influenced by the combined action of cellular repressors and activators. TREX1, SAMHD1 and ADAR1 are known LINE-1 repressors and when mutated cause the autoinflammatory disorder Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS). Mutations in RNase H2 are the most common cause of AGS, and its activity was proposed to similarly control LINE-1 retrotransposition. It has therefore been suggested that increased LINE-1 activity may be the cause of aberrant innate immune activation in AGS. Here, we establish that, contrary to expectations, RNase H2 is required for efficient LINE-1 retrotransposition. As RNase H1 overexpression partially rescues the defect in RNase H2 null cells, we propose a model in which RNase H2 degrades the LINE-1 RNA after reverse transcription, allowing retrotransposition to be completed. This also explains how LINE-1 elements can retrotranspose efficiently without their own RNase H activity. Our findings appear to be at odds with LINE-1-derived nucleic acids driving autoinflammation in AGS.M.B.-G. is funded by a “Formacion Profesorado Universitario” (FPU) PhD fellowship from the Government of Spain (MINECO, Ref FPU15/03294), and this paper is part of her thesis project (“Epigenetic control of the mobility of a human retrotransposon”). R.V.-A. is funded by a PFIS Fellowship from the Government of Spain (ISCiii, FI16/00413). O.M. is funded by an EMBO Long-Term Fellowship (ALTF 7-2015), the European Commission FP7 (Marie Curie Actions, LTFCOFUND2013, GA-2013-609409) and the Swiss National Science Foundation (P2ZHP3_158709). S.R.H. is funded by the Government of Spain (MINECO, RYC-2016-21395 and SAF2015-71589-P). A.P.J’s laboratory is supported by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC University Unit grant U127527202). J.L.G.P’s laboratory is supported by CICEFEDER- P12-CTS-2256, Plan Nacional de I+D+I 2008-2011 and 2013-2016 (FISFEDER- PI14/02152), PCIN-2014-115-ERA-NET NEURON II, the European Research Council (ERC-Consolidator ERC-STG-2012-233764), by an International Early Career Scientist grant from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (IECS-55007420), by The Wellcome Trust-University of Edinburgh Institutional Strategic Support Fund (ISFF2) and by a private donation from Ms Francisca Serrano (Trading y Bolsa para Torpes, Granada, Spain)