1,072 research outputs found

    Multiple cooperating manipulators: The case of kinematically redundant arms

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    Existing work concerning two or more manipulators simultaneously grasping and transferring a common load is continued and extended. Specifically considered is the case of one or more arms being kinematically redundant. Some existing results in the modeling and control of single redundant arms and multiple manipulators are reviewed. The cooperating situation is modeled in terms of a set of coordinates representing object motion and internal object squeezing. Nominal trajectories in these coordinates are produced via actuator load distribution algorithms introduced previously. A controller is developed to track these desired object trajectories while making use of the kinematic redundancy to additionally aid the cooperation and coordination of the system. It is shown how the existence of kinematic redundancy within the system may be used to enhance the degree of cooperation achievable

    General Solutions to Functional and Kinematic Redundancy

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    A systematic and general approach to represent functional redundancy is presented. It is shown how this approach allows the freedom provided by functional redundancy to be integrated into the inverse geometric problem for real-time applications and how it can be utilised to improve performance. A set of new iterative solutions to the inverse geometric problem, well suited for kinematically redundant manipulators, is also presented

    A General Numerical Method for Hyper-Redundant Manipulator Inverse Kinematics

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    Hyper-redundant robots have a very large or infinite degree of kinematic redundancy. A generalized resolved-rate technique for solving hyper-redundant manipulator inverse kinematics using a backbone curve is introduced. This method is applicable even in cases when explicit representation of the backbone curve intrinsic geometry cannot be written in closed form. Problems of end-effector trajectory tracking which were previously intractable can now be handled with this technique. Examples include configurations generated using the calculus of variations. The method is naturally parallelizable for fast digital and/or analog computation

    Kinematically Redundant Octahedral Motion Platform for Virtual Reality Simulations

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    We propose a novel design of a parallel manipulator of Stewart Gough type for virtual reality application of single individuals; i.e. an omni-directional treadmill is mounted on the motion platform in order to improve VR immersion by giving feedback to the human body. For this purpose we modify the well-known octahedral manipulator in a way that it has one degree of kinematical redundancy; namely an equiform reconfigurability of the base. The instantaneous kinematics and singularities of this mechanism are studied, where especially "unavoidable singularities" are characterized. These are poses of the motion platform, which can only be realized by singular configurations of the mechanism despite its kinematic redundancy.Comment: 13 pages, 6 figure

    Exploiting the robot kinematic redundancy for emotion conveyance to humans as a lower priority task

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    Current approaches do not allow robots to execute a task and simultaneously convey emotions to users using their body motions. This paper explores the capabilities of the Jacobian null space of a humanoid robot to convey emotions. A task priority formulation has been implemented in a Pepper robot which allows the specification of a primary task (waving gesture, transportation of an object, etc.) and exploits the kinematic redundancy of the robot to convey emotions to humans as a lower priority task. The emotions, defined by Mehrabian as points in the pleasure–arousal–dominance space, generate intermediate motion features (jerkiness, activity and gaze) that carry the emotional information. A map from this features to the joints of the robot is presented. A user study has been conducted in which emotional motions have been shown to 30 participants. The results show that happiness and sadness are very well conveyed to the user, calm is moderately well conveyed, and fear is not well conveyed. An analysis on the dependencies between the motion features and the emotions perceived by the participants shows that activity correlates positively with arousal, jerkiness is not perceived by the user, and gaze conveys dominance when activity is low. The results indicate a strong influence of the most energetic motions of the emotional task and point out new directions for further research. Overall, the results show that the null space approach can be regarded as a promising mean to convey emotions as a lower priority task.Postprint (author's final draft

    A global approach for using kinematic redundancy to minimize base reactions of manipulators

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    An important consideration in the use of manipulators in microgravity environments is the minimization of the base reactions, i.e. the magnitude of the force and the moment exerted by the manipulator on its base as it performs its tasks. One approach which was proposed and implemented is to use the redundant degree of freedom in a kinematically redundant manipulator to plan manipulator trajectories to minimize base reactions. A global approach was developed for minimizing the magnitude of the base reactions for kinematically redundant manipulators which integrates the Partitioned Jacobian method of redundancy resolution, a 4-3-4 joint-trajectory representation and the minimization of a cost function which is the time-integral of the magnitude of the base reactions. The global approach was also compared with a local approach developed earlier for the case of point-to-point motion of a three degree-of-freedom planar manipulator with one redundant degree-of-freedom. The results show that the global approach is more effective in reducing and smoothing the base force while the local approach is superior in reducing the base moment

    Fuzzy logic control of telerobot manipulators

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    Telerobot systems for advanced applications will require manipulators with redundant 'degrees of freedom' (DOF) that are capable of adapting manipulator configurations to avoid obstacles while achieving the user specified goal. Conventional methods for control of manipulators (based on solution of the inverse kinematics) cannot be easily extended to these situations. Fuzzy logic control offers a possible solution to these needs. A current research program at SRI developed a fuzzy logic controller for a redundant, 4 DOF, planar manipulator. The manipulator end point trajectory can be specified by either a computer program (robot mode) or by manual input (teleoperator). The approach used expresses end-point error and the location of manipulator joints as fuzzy variables. Joint motions are determined by a fuzzy rule set without requiring solution of the inverse kinematics. Additional rules for sensor data, obstacle avoidance and preferred manipulator configuration, e.g., 'righty' or 'lefty', are easily accommodated. The procedure used to generate the fuzzy rules can be extended to higher DOF systems

    The dynamic effects of internal robots on Space Station Freedom

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    Many of the planned experiments of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) will require acceleration levels to be no greater than microgravity (10 exp -6 g) levels for long periods of time. Studies have demonstrated that without adequate control, routine operations may cause disturbances which are large enough to affect on-board experiments. One way to both minimize disturbances and make the SSF more autonomous is to utilize robots instead of astronauts for some operations. The present study addresses the feasibility of using robots for microgravity manipulation. Two methods for minimizing the dynamic disturbances resulting from the robot motions are evaluated. The first method is to use a robot with kinematic redundancy (redundant links). The second method involves the use of a vibration isolation device between the robot and the SSF laboratory module. The results from these methods are presented along with simulations of robots without disturbance control
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