2,689 research outputs found

    A comparative study of peroxisomal structures in Hansenula polymorpha pex mutants

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    In a recent study, we performed a systematic genome analysis for the conservation of genes involved in peroxisome biogenesis (PEX genes) in various fungi. We have now performed a systematic study of the morphology of peroxisome remnants (‘ghosts’) in Hansenula polymorpha pex mutants (pex1–pex20) and the level of peroxins and matrix proteins in these strains. To this end, all available H. polymorpha pex strains were grown under identical cultivation conditions in glucose-limited chemostat cultures and analyzed in detail. The H. polymorpha pex mutants could be categorized into four distinct groups, namely pex mutants containing: (1) virtually normal peroxisomal structures (pex7, pex17, pex20); (2) small peroxisomal membrane structures with a distinct lumen (pex2, pex4, pex5, pex10, pex12, pex14); (3) multilayered membrane structures lacking apparent matrix protein content (pex1, pex6, pex8, pex13); and (4) no peroxisomal structures (pex3, pex19).

    Reprogramming Hansenula polymorpha for penicillin production: expression of the Penicillium chrysogenum pcl gene

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    We aim to introduce the penicillin biosynthetic pathway into the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha. To allow simultaneous expression of the multiple genes of the penicillin biosynthetic pathway, additional markers were required. To this end, we constructed a novel host–vector system based on methionine auxotrophy and the H. polymorpha MET6 gene, which encodes a putative cystathionine β-lyase. With this new host–vector system, the Penicillium chrysogenum pcl gene, encoding peroxisomal phenylacetyl-CoA ligase (PCL), was expressed in H. polymorpha. PCL has a potential C-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1). Our data demonstrate that a green fluorescent protein–PCL fusion protein has a dual location in the heterologous host in the cytosol and in peroxisomes. Mutation of the PTS1 of PCL (SKI-COOH) to SKL-COOH restored sorting of the fusion protein to peroxisomes only. Additionally, we demonstrate that peroxisomal PCL–SKL produced in H. polymorpha displays normal enzymatic activities.

    A novel platform for the production of nonhydroxylated gelatins based on the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha

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    The use of yeast as a host for heterologous expression of proteins that are normally derived from animal tissue is a promising way to ensure defined products that are devoid of potential harmful animal side products. Here we report on the production and secretion of a custom-designed gelatin, Hu3–His8, by the yeast Hansenula polymorpha. We observed that Hu3–His8 was poorly secreted by the heterologous Saccharomyces cerevisiae invertase secretion signal. In contrast, the S. cerevisiae mating factor α prepro sequence efficiently directed secretion into the culture medium. However, at higher copy numbers, intracellular accumulation of Hu3–His8 precursors occurred. Overproduction of Erv29p, a protein required for packaging of the glycosylated pro-α factor into COPII vesicles, did not improve gelatin secretion in the multicopy strain. Previously, H. polymorpha was reported to hydroxylate proline residues in gelatinous sequences. In contrast, we were unable to detect hydroxyprolines in the secreted Hu3–His8. Also, we failed to identify a gene encoding prolyl-4-hydroxylase in the H. polymorpha genome.

    A Peroxisomal Lon Protease and Peroxisome Degradation by Autophagy Play Key Roles in Vitality of Hansenula polymorpha Cells

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    In eukaryote cells various mechanisms exist that are responsible for the removal of non-functional proteins. Here we show that in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha (H. polymorpha) a peroxisomal Lon protease, Pln, plays a role in degradation of unfolded and non-assembled peroxisomal matrix proteins. In addition, we demonstrate that whole peroxisomes are constitutively degraded by autophagy during normal vegetative growth of WT cells. Deletion of both H. polymorpha PLN and ATG1, required for autophagy, resulted in a significant increase in peroxisome numbers, paralleled by a decrease in cell viability relative to WT cells. Also, in these cells and in cells of PLN and ATG1 single deletion strains, the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species had increased relative to WT controls. The enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species may be related to an uneven distribution of peroxisomal catalase activities in the mutant cells, as demonstrated by cytochemistry. We speculate that in the absence of HpPln or autophagy unfolded and non-assembled peroxisomal matrix proteins accumulate, which can form aggregates and lead to an imbalance in hydrogen peroxide production and degradation in some of the organelles.

    The Hansenula polymorpha PER8 Gene Encodes a Novel Peroxisomal Integral Membrane Protein Involved in Proliferation

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    We previously described the isolation of mutants of the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha that are defective in peroxisome biogenesis. Here, we describe the characterization of one of these mutants, per8, and the cloning of the PER8 gene. In either methanol or methylamine medium, conditions that normally induce the organdies, per8 cells contain no peroxisome-like structures and peroxisomal enzymes are located in the cytosol. The sequence of PER8 predicts that its product (Per8p) is a novel polypeptide of 34 kD, and antibodies against Per8p recognize a protein of 31 kD. Analysis of the primary sequence of Per8p revealed a 39-amino-acid cysteine-rich segment with similarity to the C3HC4 family of zinc-finger motifs. Overexpression of PER8 results in a markedly enhanced increase in peroxisome numbers. We show that Per8p is an integral membrane protein of the peroxisome and that it is concentrated in the membranes of newly formed organdies. We propose that Per8p is a component of the molecular machinery that controls the proliferation of this organelle.

    Extension of Yeast Chronological Lifespan by Methylamine

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    Background: Chronological aging of yeast cells is commonly used as a model for aging of human post-mitotic cells. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on glucose in the presence of ammonium sulphate is mainly used in yeast aging research. We have analyzed chronological aging of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha grown at conditions that require primary peroxisome metabolism for growth. Methodology/Principal Findings: The chronological lifespan of H. polymorpha is strongly enhanced when cells are grown on methanol or ethanol, metabolized by peroxisome enzymes, relative to growth on glucose that does not require peroxisomes. The short lifespan of H. polymorpha on glucose is mainly due to medium acidification, whereas most likely ROS do not play an important role. Growth of cells on methanol/methylamine instead of methanol/ammonium sulphate resulted in further lifespan enhancement. This was unrelated to medium acidification. We show that oxidation of methylamine by peroxisomal amine oxidase at carbon starvation conditions is responsible for lifespan extension. The methylamine oxidation product formaldehyde is further oxidized resulting in NADH generation, which contributes to increased ATP generation and reduction of ROS levels in the stationary phase. Conclusion/Significance: We conclude that primary peroxisome metabolism enhanced chronological lifespan of H. polymorpha. Moreover, the possibility to generate NADH at carbon starvation conditions by an organic nitrogen source supports further extension of the lifespan of the cell. Consequently, the interpretation of CLS analyses in yeast should include possible effects on the energy status of the cell.

    Production of Phenylacetylcarbinol in a Stand Still Condition Using Two Phase System by Applying Yeast Cells Capable of Fermenting Dried Ephedra Extract and Molass as Biocatalysts

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    Microbial Biotransformation of benzaldehyde to L Phenylacetylcarbinol (L-PAC) as a key intermediate for L-ephedrine synthesis has been evaluated using immobilized Hansenula polymorpha. The cultivation of 10 ml Hansenula anomala inoculum for 48 h in the cultivation medium with glucose as a sole carbon source resulted in the highest ethanol concentration of 10.6 ± 0.53 g/l. This was followed by Hansenula polymorpha (4.06 ± 0.20 g/l) and Brettanomyces lambicus (2.94 ± 0.15 g/l), respectively. The cultivation using 100 ml dried Ephedra  extract and molass in 1:1 ratio as a sole carbon source showed that microbes with ability to consume glucose, fructose and sucrose released high level of ethanol (g/l) included Hansenula polymorpha (43.4 ± 4.0), (41.8 ± 1.2) and Hansenula anomala (38.1 ± 2.5). A biotransformation experiment was conducted using wet biomass of 3.06 g/l dry biomass equivalent from the medium with dried Ephedra extract and molass in 1:1 ratio as carbon source. After the two phase system was stood aside for 24 h, Hansenula polymorpha generated an overall R-phenylacetylcarbinol (PAC) concentration of 3.97 and 3.72 mM at 4 OC and 35OC which was followed by Hansenula polymorpha (3.04 and 3.73 mM), Brettanomyces lambicus (1.24 and 2.98 mM) as well as Hansenula anomala (0.86 and 0.07 mM)

    Location of catalase in crystalline peroxisomes of methanol-grown Hansenula polymorpha

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    We have studied the intraperoxisomal location of catalase in peroxisomes of methanol-grown Hansenula polymorpha by (immuno)cytochemical means. In completely crystalline peroxisomes, in which the crystalline matrix is composed of octameric alcohol oxidase (AO) molecules, most of the catalase protein is located in a narrow zone between the crystalloid and the peroxisomal membrane. In non-crystalline organelles the enzyme was present throughout the peroxisomal matrix. Other peroxisomal matrix enzymes studied for comparison, namely dihydroxyacetone synthase, amine oxidase and malate synthase, all were present throughout the AO crystalloid. The advantage of location of catalase at the edges of the AO crystalloids for growth of the organism on methanol is discussed.

    Peroxisome biogenesis in Hansenula polymorpha: different mutations in genes, essential for peroxisome biogenesis, cause different peroxisomal mutant phenotypes

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    In Hansenula polymorpha, different monogenic recessive mutations mapped in either of two previously identified genes, PER1 and PER3, produced different peroxisomal mutant phenotypes. Among five per1 mutants, four showed a Pim- phenotype: the cells contained few small peroxisomes while the bulk of the matrix enzymes resided in the cytosol. One of these mutants, per1-124 had an enhanced rate of peroxisome proliferation. The fifth mutant completely lacked peroxisomes (Per- phenotype). Of seven per3 mutants, four displayed a Pim- phenotype, two others a Per- phenotype, while one mutant showed pH-dependent growth on methanol and was affected in oligomerization of peroxisomal matrix protein. Thus, the protein products of both PER1 and PER3 genes appear to be essential in different aspects of peroxisome assembly/proliferation.

    Isolation and properties of genetically defined strains of the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha CBS4732

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    Genetically defined strains of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha were constructed froth a clone of H. polymorpha CBS4732 with very low mating and sporulation abilities. Mating, spore viability, and the percentage of four-spore-containing asci were increased to a level at which tetrad analysis was possible. Auxotrophic mutations in 30 genes were isolated and used to construct strains with multiple markers for mapping studies, transformation with plasmid DNA, and mutant screening. Various other types of mutants were isolated and characterized, among them mutants that displayed an altered morphology, methanol-utilization deficient mutants and strains impaired in the biosynthesis of alcohol oxidase and catalase. Also, the mutability of H. polymorpha CBS4732 vs H. polymorpha NCYC495 was compared. The data revealed clear differences in frequencies of appearance and mutational spectra of some mutants isolated. Many of the mutants isolated had good mating abilities, and diploids resulting from their crossing displayed high sporulation frequencies and high spore viability. Most of the markers used revealed normal Mendelian segregation during meiosis. The frequency of tetratype spore formation was lower than in Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggesting a lower frequency of recombination during the second meiotic division. The properties of genetically defined strains of H. polymorpha CBS4732 as well as their advantages for genetics and molecular studies are discussed
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