372 research outputs found

    Focusing RKKY interaction by graphene P-N junction

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    The carrier-mediated RKKY interaction between local spins plays an important role for the application of magnetically doped graphene in spintronics and quantum computation. Previous studies largely concentrate on the influence of electronic states of uniform systems on the RKKY interaction. Here we reveal a very different way to manipulate the RKKY interaction by showing that the anomalous focusing - a well-known electron optics phenomenon in graphene P-N junctions - can be utilized to refocus the massless Dirac electrons emanating from one local spin to the other local spin. This gives rise to rich spatial interference patterns and symmetry-protected non-oscillatory RKKY interaction with a strongly enhanced magnitude. It may provide a new way to engineer the long-range spin-spin interaction in graphene.Comment: 9 pages, 4 figure

    Effect of disorder on a graphene p-n junction

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    We propose the theory of transport in a gate-tunable graphene p-n junction, in which the gradient of the carrier density is controlled by the gate voltage. Depending on this gradient and on the density of charged impurities, the junction resistance is dominated by either diffusive or ballistic contribution. We find the conditions for observing ballistic transport and show that in existing devices they are satisfied only marginally. We also simulate numerically the trajectories of charge carriers and illustrate challenges in realizing more delicate ballistic effects, such as Veselago lensing.Comment: (v2)Version accepted to Phys. Rev.

    Nonlinear screening and ballistic transport in a graphene p-n junction

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    We study the charge density distribution, the electric field profile, and the resistance of an electrostatically created lateral p-n junction in graphene. We show that the electric field at the interface of the electron and hole regions is strongly enhanced due to limited screening capacity of Dirac quasiparticles. Accordingly, the junction resistance is lower than estimated in previous literature.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures. (v1) Original version (v2) Introduction largely rewritten, minor typos fixed throughou

    Switchable valley filter based on a graphene pp-nn junction in a magnetic field

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    Low-energy excitations in graphene exhibit relativistic properties due to the linear dispersion relation close to the Dirac points in the first Brillouin zone. Two of the Dirac points located at opposite corners of the first Brillouin zone can be chosen as inequivalent, representing a new valley degree of freedom, in addition to the charge and spin of an electron. Using the valley degree of freedom to encode information has attracted significant interest, both theoretically and experimentally, and gave rise to the field of valleytronics. We study a graphene pp-nn junction in a uniform out-of-plane magnetic field as a platform to generate and controllably manipulate the valley polarization of electrons. We show that by tuning the external potential giving rise to the pp-nn junction we can switch the current from one valley polarization to the other. We also consider the effect of different types of edge terminations and present a setup, where we can partition an incoming valley-unpolarized current into two branches of valley-polarized currents. The branching ratio can be chosen by changing the location of the pp-nn junction using a gate.Comment: 8 pages, 7 figure

    Valley-isospin dependence of the quantum Hall effect in a graphene p-n junction

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    We calculate the conductance G of a bipolar junction in a graphene nanoribbon, in the high-magnetic field regime where the Hall conductance in the p-doped and n-doped regions is 2e^2/h. In the absence of intervalley scattering, the result G=(e^2/h)(1-cos Phi) depends only on the angle Phi between the valley isospins (= Bloch vectors representing the spinor of the valley polarization) at the two opposite edges. This plateau in the conductance versus Fermi energy is insensitive to electrostatic disorder, while it is destabilized by the dispersionless edge state which may exist at a zigzag boundary. A strain-induced vector potential shifts the conductance plateau up or down by rotating the valley isospin.Comment: 5 pages, 6 figure

    Local Electrical Stress-Induced Doping and Formation of 2D Monolayer Graphene P-N Junction

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    We demonstrated doping in 2D monolayer graphene via local electrical stressing. The doping, confirmed by the resistance-voltage transfer characteristics of the graphene system, is observed to continuously tunable from N-type to P-type as the electrical stressing level (voltage) increases. Two major physical mechanisms are proposed to interpret the observed phenomena: modifications of surface chemistry for N-type doping (at low-level stressing) and thermally-activated charge transfer from graphene to SiO2 substrate for P-type doping (at high-level stressing). The formation of P-N junction on 2D graphene monolayer is demonstrated with complementary doping based on locally applied electrical stressing.Comment: 12 pages, 4 figure

    The transport properties of Kekul\'e-ordered graphene pp-nn junctions

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    The transport properties of electrons in graphene pp-nn junction with uniform Kekul\'e lattice distortion have been studied using the tight-binding model and the Landauer-B\"uttiker formalism combined with the nonequilibrium Green's function method. In the Kekul\'e-ordered graphene, the original KK and KK^{\prime} valleys of the pristine graphene are folded together due to the 3×3\sqrt{3} \times \sqrt{3} enlargement of the primitive cell. When the valley coupling breaks the chiral symmetry, special transport properties of Dirac electrons exist in the Kekul\'e lattice. In the O-shaped Kekul\'e graphene pp-nn junction, Klein tunneling is suppressed, and only resonance tunneling occurs. In the Y-shaped Kekul\'e graphene pp-nn junction, the transport of electrons is dominated by Klein tunneling. When the on-site energy modification is introduced into the Y-shaped Kekul\'e structure, both Klein tunneling and resonance tunneling occur, and the electron tunneling is enhanced. In the presence of a strong magnetic field, the conductance of O-shaped and on-site energy-modified Y-shaped Kekul\'e graphene pp-nn junctions is non-zero due to the occurrence of resonance tunneling. It is also found that the disorder can enhance conductance, with conductance plateaus forming in the appropriate range of disorder strength. The ideal plateau value is found only in the Kekul\'e-Y system.Comment: 8 pages, 7 figure
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