85,076 research outputs found

    Identification of photons in double beta-decay experiments using segmented germanium detectors - studies with a GERDA Phase II prototype detector

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    The sensitivity of experiments searching for neutrinoless double beta-decay of germanium was so far limited by the background induced by external gamma-radiation. Segmented germanium detectors can be used to identify photons and thus reduce this background component. The GERmanium Detector Array, GERDA, will use highly segmented germanium detectors in its second phase. The identification of photonic events is investigated using a prototype detector. The results are compared with Monte Carlo data.Comment: 20 pages, 7 figures, to be submitted to NIM-

    Nanocrystalline and Thin Film Germanium Electrodes with High Lithium Capacity and High Rate Capabilities

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    Germanium nanocrystals (12 nm mean diam) and amorphous thin films (60-250 nm thick) were prepared as anodes for lithium secondary cells. Amorphous thin film electrodes prepared on planar nickel substrates showed stable capacities of 1700 mAh/g over 60 cycles. Germanium nanocrystals showed reversible gravimetric capacities of up to 1400 mAh/g with 60% capacity retention after 50 cycles. Both electrodes were found to be crystalline in the fully lithiated state. The enhanced capacity, rate capability (1000C), and cycle life of nanophase germanium over bulk crystalline germanium is attributed to the high surface area and short diffusion lengths of the active material and the absence of defects in nanophase materials

    Electrical and thermal spin accumulation in germanium

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    In this letter, we first show electrical spin injection in the germanium conduction band at room temperature and modulate the spin signal by applying a gate voltage to the channel. The corresponding signal modulation agrees well with the predictions of spin diffusion models. Then by setting a temperature gradient between germanium and the ferromagnet, we create a thermal spin accumulation in germanium without any tunnel charge current. We show that temperature gradients yield larger spin accumulations than pure electrical spin injection but, due to competing microscopic effects, the thermal spin accumulation in germanium remains surprisingly almost unchanged under the application of a gate voltage to the channel.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figure

    Effect of ion-plated films of germanium and silicon on friction, wear, and oxidation of 52100 bearing steel

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    Friction and wear experiments were conducted with ion plated films of germanium and silicon on the surface of 52100 bearing steel both dry and in the presence of mineral oil. Both silicon and germanium were found to reduce wear, with germanium being more effective than silicon. An optimum film thickness of germanium for minimum wear without surface crack formation was found to be approximately 400 nanometers (4000 A). The presence of silicon and germanium on the 52100 bearing steel surface improved resistance to oxidation

    Germanium, Arsenic, and Selenium Abundances in Metal-Poor Stars

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    The elements germanium (Ge, Z=32), arsenic (As, Z=33), and selenium (Se, Z=34) span the transition from charged-particle or explosive synthesis of the iron-group elements to neutron-capture synthesis of heavier elements. Among these three elements, only the chemical evolution of germanium has been studied previously. Here we use archive observations made with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope and observations from several ground-based facilities to study the chemical enrichment histories of seven stars with metallicities -2.6 < [Fe/H] < -0.4. We perform a standard abundance analysis of germanium, arsenic, selenium, and several other elements produced by neutron-capture reactions. When combined with previous derivations of germanium abundances in metal-poor stars, our sample reveals an increase in the [Ge/Fe] ratios at higher metallicities. This could mark the onset of the weak s-process contribution to germanium. In contrast, the [As/Fe] and [Se/Fe] ratios remain roughly constant. These data do not directly indicate the origin of germanium, arsenic, and selenium at low metallicity, but they suggest that the weak and main components of the s-process are not likely sources.Comment: Accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal. (12 pages, 5 figures

    Hydrogen peroxide etching proves useful for germanium

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    Influence of process variations in the etching of germanium with hydrogen peroxide has been studied, along with damage effects due to radiation. The work advances the knowledge of the etching process for germanium

    Electronegativity and doping in Si1-xGex alloys

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    Silicon germanium alloys are technologically important in microelectronics but also they are an important paradigm and model system to study the intricacies of the defect processes on random alloys. The key in semiconductors is that dopants and defects can tune their electronic properties and although their impact is well established in elemental semiconductors such as silicon they are not well characterized in random semiconductor alloys such as silicon germanium. In particular the impact of electronegativity of the local environment on the electronic properties of the dopant atom needs to be clarified. Here we employ density functional theory in conjunction with special quasirandom structures model to show that the Bader charge of the dopant atoms is strongly dependent upon the nearest neighbor environment. This in turn implies that the dopants will behave differently is silicon-rich and germanium-rich regions of the silicon germanium alloy
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