39 research outputs found

    The emergence and development of the German dual vocational system: Between crises and praises

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    In this article we give an overview of the emergence and development of the German dual vocational training system. We show how it developed from training young people in the guilds in the Middle Ages towards a corporatist system including several actors and learning locations. Due to its flexibility and corporative character, the German vocational training system has managed to emerge strengthened from several social changes that threatened its existence. It is currently regarded as key for Germans economic success and social integration of approximately half of Germany’s school leavers in preparing them for the world of work

    Globalization and deregulation : Does flexicurity protect atypically employed?

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    Hitherto, discussion of flexicurity has focused on normal employment (permanent full-time), with atypical work receiving only cursory attention. Nevertheless, the most affected are just atypically employed (= other than normally employed). To monitor effects of flexicurity policies in Europe, flexicurity indices are constructed from: (a) scores of the strictness of employment protection legislation provided by the OECD, (b) qualitative juridical data on social security benefits (unemployment insurance, public pensions, etc.), and (c) data on the dynamics of employment types (permanent, temporary, full-time, part-time, self-employed, etc.). The empirical investigation shows that, contrary to political promises and theoretical opinions, the deregulation of European labour markets absolutely predominates. Its moderate compensation by advantages in social security occurred only twice: in Denmark and Netherlands at the end of the 1990s. The flexibilization reduces the average employment status, i.e. employees are more often employed not permanently but temporarily, not full-time but part-time, and more frequently they involuntary turn to self-employment. On the other hand, the eligibility to social benefits depends on the employment status. Thereby these trends disqualify employees from social benefits. The apparent compensation of the labour market deregulation by social advantages is therefore insufficient. --flexicurity,labour market flexibility,atypical employment,social security,composite indicators

    The Rationale for Wage Rigidity: Survey Evidence from German and US Firms

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    The study provides evidence for the rationale of wage rigidity in Germany compared to the United States. Based on a survey of 801 firms, we extend the study of Campbell and Kanlani (1997, this journal) by using more thorough econometric methods, for example, and find strong support for explanations based on labor union contracts and implicit wages for Germany. Furthermore, survey respondents indicated that labor union contracts and implicit contracts are important reasons for wage rigidity for the (less) skilled. Specific human capital and negative signals for new hires are important reasons for the highly skilled. In contrast to the US experience for German firms insider-outsider behavior, labor union contracts and specific human capital seem to be more important explanations of wage rigidity

    Empresas alemanas en China; ¬ŅC√≥mo solventan las empresas el problema de la formaci√≥n a nivel de planta?

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    This article explores German transplant companies‚Äô attempts to foster and assure the skills levels of their Chinese employees for production and innovation in consideration of a different socio-cultural and political framework. Methodologically conducted by on-site expert interviews, this paper first reports empirical findings on German companies‚Äô strategies and practices for recruiting and retaining (skilled) local employees for the shop-floor level. On the basis of Engestr√∂m‚Äôs activity theory, the concept of boundary objects functions as the theoretical framework. The results indicate complementary innovative personnel strategies with regard to qualifying and retaining. In the discussion, the identified phenomena such as the foundation of a coopetitive practical training center are assigned to the theoretical context of boundary objects.Este art√≠culo tiene el prop√≥sito de aprender sobre la intenci√≥n de las empresas alemanas en el extranjero en fomentar y asegurar los niveles de competencia de sus empleados chinos en producci√≥n e innovaci√≥n considerando un marco socio-cultural y pol√≠tico diferente. Llevado a cabo metodol√≥gicamente a trav√©s de entrevistas a expertos in situ, este art√≠culo se centra en reportar sobre los primeros hallazgos emp√≠ricos en estrat√©gias y pr√°cticas de empresas alemanas sobre reclutamiento y vinculaci√≥n de empleados locales (competentes) para el nivel de planta. En base a la teor√≠a de la actividad de Engestr√∂m, el concepto de boundary objects act√ļa como marco te√≥rico. Los resultados indican estrat√©gias de personal innovativas complementarias con referencia a cualificaci√≥n y retenci√≥n. En la discusi√≥n, los fen√≥menos identificados como la fundaci√≥n de un centro de entrenamiento pr√°ctico coopetitivo, son asignados al contexto te√≥rico de boundary objects

    Training and individual performance in Europe: evidence from microeconometric studies

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    Learning at school and university and also at the work place has become more important in the knowledge-based economy. This paper provides a critical review of recent econometric work on the determinants and impacts of training in Europe. Training has non negligible positive effects for firms and trainees; for the group of non trainees potential negative effects has been found in some studies. The incidence and the impact of training depend on the national education and training system. However, selectivity, individual heterogeneity, self selection, diversity of training institutions and general equilibrium effects seem to play an important role in all training systems. --education and training systems,the impact of training,self selection and individual heterogeneity,training policy in Europe

    Globalization and deregulation: does flexicuritiy protect atypically employed?

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    "Hitherto, discussion of flexicurity has focused on normal employment (permanent full-time), with atypical work receiving only cursory attention. Nevertheless, the most affected are just atypically employed (= other than normally employed). To monitor effects of flexicurity policies in Europe, flexicurity indices are constructed from: (a) scores of the strictness of employment protection legislation provided by the OECD, (b) qualitative juridical data on social security benefits (unemployment insurance, public pensions, etc.), and (c) data on the dynamics of employment types (permanent, temporary, full-time, part-time, self-employed, etc.). The empirical investigation shows that, contrary to political promises and theoretical opinions, the deregulation of European labour markets absolutely predominates. Its moderate compensation by advantages in social security occurred only twice: in Denmark and Netherlands at the end of the 1990s. The flexibilization reduces the average employment status, i.e. employees are more often employed not permanently but temporarily, not full-time but part-time, and more frequently they involuntary turn to self-employment. On the other hand, the eligibility to social benefits depends on the employment status. Thereby these trends disqualify employees from social benefits. The apparent compensation of the labour market deregulation by social advantages is therefore insufficient." (author's abstract

    The scope for German dual vocational training in the Egyptian hotel industry

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    Since the introduction of German dual vocational training programmes to the Egyptian education system in the early 1990s, despite the high profile of tourism's role as one of Egypt’s most important economic sectors, the Egyptian-German Hotel School Paul Rahn in El Gouna is the only example of a dual vocational based school in the country’s hotel sector. Its mission has been defined as the provision of qualified staff for the hotel industry and providing career opportunities to young people, mainly from financially disadvantaged families. Setting out from this background, this thesis aims at analyzing the scope for German dual vocational training in the Egyptian hotel industry by evaluating its success and acceptance as well as the hotel school's potential of becoming a role model for the systematic introduction of hotel related studies on a national basis. The evaluation of the school's performance shows that although there are still numerous and serious weaknesses to be overcome in the daily school operation, student selection and quality, the school's overall concept has gained the hotel industry’s unquestionable support so that the basis for its future success has been laid. However, severe shortcomings still exist in the realization of the school's mission of supporting financially weak students: it will be illustrated with the help of a field study among El Gouna Hotel School students that the majority of students do not originate from poor and modest social backgrounds but well-established families from the upper lower classes; their children are generally not interested in a long term career in the hotel industry resulting in many post graduation drop outs. However, especially for children from poorer families the analysis of the hotel school graduates' income situation and career development indicates that the school has the potential to act as an excellent tool for poverty alleviation and social stabilization by significantly contributing to the improvement of its former students' and their families' financial situation and career development. When overcoming its current weaknesses and enabling young people from financially disadvantaged backgrounds to enrol, the school will effectively be able to serve both as a national role model for high quality hotel training and provide attractive future perspectives for Egypt's younger generations for non-university entry level positions

    Implementation of Dual Training Programmes through the Development of Boundary Objects: a Case Study

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    A dual training system or programme tries to balance education (in a school) and training (in a company) in an equal manner to qualify, educate and socialise the next generation. Besides these effects (qualification, education and socialisation), it seems that this dual structure enables a country to achieve economic targets (e.g. economic growth) and social objectives (e.g. the integration of young people into the employment market), which is why attempts are being made in various countries to develop or to preserve dual training structures. This study focuses on emerging dual training programmes in the United States of America. Our questions are: How do German companies establish dual structures in the United States of America? How do they shape the cooperation between companies and schools? As the cooperation aspect will be the focus of the article, we will concentrate on the interface between the schools and the companies. Our theoretical reference is the concept of boundary objects; a concept within the tradition of cultural-historical activity theory. Using this concept, we show how and in which way dual training structures and an innovative workplace learning partnership have being established in a German transplant in the USA.Un sistema o programa de formaci√≥n dual intenta equilibrar de igual manera la educaci√≥n (en la escuela) y la formaci√≥n (en la empresa) para cualificar, educar y socializar a la pr√≥xima generaci√≥n. Aparte de estos efectos (cualificaci√≥n, educaci√≥n y socializaci√≥n), parece que dicha estructura dual permite que un pa√≠s alcance objetivos econ√≥micos (por ejemplo: el crecimiento econ√≥mico) y objetivos sociales (por ejemplo: la integraci√≥n de j√≥venes en el mercado laboral), lo que explica por qu√© motivo se intenta desarrollar o preservar las estructuras de formaci√≥n dual en varios pa√≠ses.El estudio se centra en programas emergentes de formaci√≥n dual en los Estados Unidos de Am√©rica. Nuestras preguntas son: ¬Ņc√≥mo establecen las empresas alemanas estructuras duales en Estados Unidos de Am√©rica?, ¬Ņc√≥mo se determina la cooperaci√≥n entre empresas y escuelas?Ya que el aspecto de la cooperaci√≥n ser√° el foco principal del art√≠culo, nos centraremos en la interconexi√≥n entre las escuelas y las empresas. Nuestra referencia te√≥rica es el concepto de boundary objects, el cual se encuentra dentro de la tradici√≥n de la teor√≠a de la actividad hist√≥rico-cultural. Usando el concepto mencionado, mostramos de qu√© manera deben establecerse las estructuras de formaci√≥n dual y una asociaci√≥n innovadora del aprendizaje en el lugar de trabajo en este proceso de adaptaci√≥n del sistema alem√°n en los EUA.Un sistema o un programa de formaci√≥ dual intenta equilibrar l'educaci√≥ (a l'escola) i la formaci√≥ (a l'empresa) per qualificar, educar i socialitzar la generaci√≥ seg√ľent. A banda dels efectes esmentats (qualificaci√≥, educaci√≥ i socialitzaci√≥), sembla que aquesta estructura dual permet que un pa√≠s assoleixi objectius econ√≤mics (per exemple: creixement econ√≤mic) i objectius socials (per exemple: la integraci√≥ de joves en el mercat laboral), aix√≤ explica per qu√® s'intenta desenvolupar o preservar les estructures de la formaci√≥ dual en diferents pa√Įsos.L'estudi se centra en programes emergents de formaci√≥ dual als Estats Units d'Am√®rica. Les nostres preguntes s√≥n: com estableixen les empreses alemanyes estructures duals als Estats Units d'Am√®rica?, com es determina la cooperaci√≥ entre empreses i escoles?Ja que l'aspecte de la cooperaci√≥ ser√† el focus principal de l'article, ens centrarem en la interconnexi√≥ entre les escoles i les empreses. El referent te√≤ric √©s el concepte de boundary objects, que es troba dins de la tradici√≥ de la teoria de l'activitat historicocultural. Fent servir el concepte esmentat, mostrem de quina manera s'han d'establir les estructures de formaci√≥ dual i una associaci√≥ innovadora de l'aprenentatge en el lloc de treball en aquest proc√©s d'adaptaci√≥ del sistema alemany als EUA.A dual training system or programme tries to balance education (in a school) and training (in a company) in an equal manner to qualify, educate and socialise the next generation. Besides these effects (qualification, education and socialisation), it seems that this dual structure enables a country to achieve economic targets (e.g. economic growth) and social objectives (e.g. the integration of young people into the employment market), which is why attempts are being made in various countries to develop or to preserve dual training structures. This study focuses on emerging dual training programmes in the United States of America. Our questions are: How do German companies establish dual structures in the United States of America? How do they shape the cooperation between companies and schools? As the cooperation aspect will be the focus of the article, we will concentrate on the interface between the schools and the companies. Our theoretical reference is the concept of boundary objects; a concept within the tradition of cultural-historical activity theory. Using this concept, we show how and in which way dual training structures and an innovative workplace learning partnership have being established in a German transplant in the USA
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