1,433 research outputs found

    Emotional labour and its consequences in health-care setting

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    The psychosomatic consequences of emotional labour are numerous. However, the most often debated one is burnout. Employers, through enforcing emotional norms onto employees expose their employees to emotional exhaustion, and in the long run depersonalization. Nevertheless, not all levels of emotional labour are equally detrimental. Surface acting, and repressing of genuine emotions in particular had the most negative consequences according to the research data of 171 health care practitioners. Faking emotional displays different from the ones genuine emotions would induce also had its harmful outcome decreasing the respondentsā€™ sense of personal performance. On the other hand, the satisfaction with life of those, who mostly displayed their genuine emotions, was rather lower than that of those, who faked emotional displays according to social/organisational expectations.emotional labour, burnout, health-care, oncology

    David Foster Wallace and Lovelessness

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    The article focuses on the American writer David Foster Wallace and his way of expressing emotions in his works. Topics discussed include Wallace using irony in his fictions to express genuine emotions, critics of his work reproducing Wallace\u27s own thoughts to criticize him, and his books Oblivion, and Infinite Jest, and the unfinished novel The Pale King. It also refers to the book Mrs. Dalloway by Virginia Woolf in comparison to deaths in Wallace\u27s works

    The Effect of Hotel Employeesā€™ Emotional Labour on Interpersonal Counterproductive Work Behaviours

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    This research aims to shed light on the effect of hotelsā€™ employees' emotional labour with its three levels (surface acting, deep acting and genuine emotions) on interpersonal counterproductive work behaviours. To achieve this aim, a questionnaire was designed for Egyptian hotelsā€™ employees which was structured to cover three main parts: (1) demographic characteristics of employees, (2) employees' emotional labour and (3) interpersonal counterproductive work behaviours. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used involving (smart- PLS) software, IBM, version 4. The results show that the hotelsā€™ employees' emotional labour with its three levels (surface acting, deep acting and genuine emotions) affects interpersonal counterproductive work behaviours with its two types (task focused and person focused) as there is a positive effect of surface acting on interpersonal counterproductive work behaviour. Employees' emotional labour must be seriously handled within the hospitality industry as it is a very important element affecting task-focused or person-focused ICWBs in the hotel. As both surface acting and genuine emotions increase task-focused or person-focused ICWBs, deep acting decreases task-focused or person-focused ICWBs

    Emotions and Emotional Labor at Worker-Owned Businesses: Deep Acting, Surface Acting, and Genuine Emotions

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    Members of worker cooperativesā€”organizations collectively owned and democratically run by their workersā€”report substantial differences in how they can or must perform various emotions, compared with previous work at conventional, hierarchical organizations. First, some emotions not allowed in conventional workplaces are fully permitted at worker cooperatives, including negative emotions, like anger, but also positive emotions, like enthusiasm. In contrast, other emotions must be displayed, even if insincere. Sometimes, these displays are accomplished through surface acting, like pretending to happily accept the slow pace of committee-led change. Other times, through deep acting, members internalized new emotional reactions, such as pride, instead of resentment, when helping coworkers even after their own shifts had ended

    Trabalho emocional no turismo: a influĆŖncia da orientaĆ§Ć£o para o cliente e consequĆŖncias

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    Doutoramento em TurismoA expansĆ£o econĆ³mica e social do turismo recomenda que as organizaƧƵes turĆ­sticas atendam ao equilĆ­brio entre a competitividade dos preƧos e a dos serviƧos. Nesta dinĆ¢mica espera-se que os empregados de contacto expressem emoƧƵes positivas durante as interaƧƵes com os clientes, o que pode passar por uma adequaĆ§Ć£o das emoƧƵes, ou seja, podem mascarĆ”-las (representaĆ§Ć£o superficial), manipulĆ”-las cognitivamente (representaĆ§Ć£o profunda) ou expressar as suas emoƧƵes genuĆ­nas (expressĆ£o de emoƧƵes genuĆ­nas). O presente estudo avalia a influĆŖncia da orientaĆ§Ć£o para o cliente (organizacional e individual) nas estratĆ©gias de trabalho emocional. Adicionalmente analisa as repercussƵes das estratĆ©gias de trabalho emocional em quatro outcomes: burnout, prestaĆ§Ć£o afetiva do serviƧo, satisfaĆ§Ć£o no trabalho e empenhamento afetivo. Finalmente explora o efeito mediador das estratĆ©gias de trabalho emocional na relaĆ§Ć£o entre a orientaĆ§Ć£o para o cliente e os quatro outcomes. A amostra foi constituĆ­da por 283 empregados de contacto oriundos de unidades hoteleiras e agĆŖncias de viagem. Os resultados revelam que a orientaĆ§Ć£o organizacional para o cliente promove a expressĆ£o de emoƧƵes genuĆ­nas e, por outro lado, a orientaĆ§Ć£o individual para o cliente, promove tanto a representaĆ§Ć£o profunda como a expressĆ£o de emoƧƵes genuĆ­nas. Sobre a relaĆ§Ć£o das estratĆ©gias de trabalho emocional com os quatro outcomes, o estudo evidencia, em relaĆ§Ć£o ao burnout, que enquanto a representaĆ§Ć£o superficial incrementa a exaustĆ£o emocional e a despersonalizaĆ§Ć£o, a expressĆ£o de emoƧƵes genuĆ­nas favorece a realizaĆ§Ć£o pessoal dos empregados. Finalmente verifica-se que a expressĆ£o de emoƧƵes genuĆ­nas incentiva a prestaĆ§Ć£o afetiva do serviƧo, a satisfaĆ§Ć£o no trabalho e o empenhamento afetivo. Fundamenta-se a vantagem da consolidaĆ§Ć£o de culturas orientadas para o cliente no sentido do fortalecimento da qualidade da prestaĆ§Ć£o de serviƧos, bem como a pertinĆŖncia da aquisiĆ§Ć£o e do desenvolvimento de competĆŖncias relacionais que consagrem a orientaĆ§Ć£o individual para o cliente. SĆ£o descritas as implicaƧƵes, as limitaƧƵes e os contributos para investigaƧƵes futuras.The economic and social expansion of tourism advises tourism organizations to balance competitive pricing and services. Accordingly, contact employees are expected to show positive emotions when interacting with customers, which may require aligning emotions, i.e. mask them (surface acting), manipulate them cognitively (deep acting) or express their genuine emotions (expression of genuine emotions). This study evaluates the influence of customer orientation (organizational and individual) in emotional labor strategies. In addition, it analyses the impact of emotional labor strategies on four outcomes: burnout, affective delivery, job satisfaction and affective commitment. Finally, it explores the mediating effect of emotional labor strategies in the relationship between customer orientation and the four outcomes. The sample consisted of 283 contact employees from hotels and travel agencies. The results show that organizational customer orientation promotes the expression of genuine emotions and that, on the other hand, individual customer orientation fosters both deep acting and expression of genuine emotions. As for the relationship between emotional labor strategies and the four outcomes, with regard to burnout the study reveals that while surface acting increases emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, the expression of genuine emotions fosters employeesā€™ personal accomplishment. Finally, it indicates that the expression of genuine emotions encourages affective delivery, job satisfaction and affective commitment. The advantage of consolidating customer oriented cultures so as to strengthen the quality of service delivery is expounded here, as well as the importance of acquiring and developing relational skills that uphold individual customer orientation. The implications, limitations and contributions for future research are equally described

    How Entrepreneurial Leaders Use Emotional Labor to Improve Employee Attitudes and Firm Performance

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    This study takes a deep look at how entrepreneurial leaders use all three forms of emotional labor. The results from this analysis of 147 dyadic pairs of entrepreneurial leaders and their subordinates are presented herein. This study is the first to investigate the relationship between emotional labor strategy and the display of discrete genuine emotions (enthusiasm, liking, irritation). Leader genuine emotional labor and leader displays of positive discrete emotions were positively correlated with employee job satisfaction, affective commitment, and lower intentions to quit. Additionally, this study provides empirical evidence that the display of discrete emotions moderates the effects of leader genuine emotion on firm performance. From a practical standpoint this study benefits entrepreneurs by outlining emotionally healthy methods to display the appropriate emotions when interacting with stakeholders to enhance firm performance

    Religious Experience without Belief? Toward an Imaginative Account of Religious Engagement

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    It is commonly supposed that a certain kind of belief is necessary for religious experience. Yet it is not clear that this must be so. In this article, I defend the possibility that a subject could have a genuine emotional religious experience without thereby necessarily believing that the purported object of her experience corresponds to reality and/or is the cause of her experience. Imaginative engagement, I argue, may evoke emotional religious experiences that may be said to be both genuine and appropriate, despite not necessarily including beliefs of the aforementioned kind.I go on to maintain that such religious engagement is compatible not only with non-belief but also with disbelief

    Jing Li, Associate Professor of Chinese Language and Culture

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    In this first Next Page column of the 2017-18 academic year, Jing Li, Associate Professor of Chinese Language and Culture, shares recommendations for Chinese folktales that will help readers ā€œsee China in plural forms,ā€ her favorite book to give as a gift, how she got her hands on magazines and comic books to read for fun during her childhood in China, and much more

    Role of Leadersā€™ Emotional Labor toward Leaderā€™s Job Satisfaction and Emotional Exhaustion: Moderating Role of Psychological Capital

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    Everyone has to manage the emotions during their interaction with others; similar case is with the leaders in organizations. Leadersā€™ actively and continually regulate their emotional state. The crucial role of emotions in interactional process as well in decision making triggers leaders to be vigilant about their emotional labor strategies. Thus emotional labor has become an emerging construct in leadership domain. This study has collected data from 250 doctors working in private and public hospitals in Gujranwala. Findings demonstrated leadersā€™ deep acting as well as displaying natural emotions are positively associated with job satisfaction and negatively associated with leadersā€™ emotional exhaustion. Moreover, surface acting has significant positive relationship with leadersā€™ emotional exhaustion and negative relationship with leadersā€™ job satisfaction. Psychological capital significantly moderated the relationship between leadersā€™ emotional labor strategies, leadersā€™ job satisfaction and leadersā€™ emotional exhaustion


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    This study finds leader genuine emotion does influence firm performance in two ways. First it can result in positive effect on subordinate attitude which, in turn, increases firm performance. Second, it can result in negative direct effect on firm performance after controlling for the indirect effects just mentioned. These results are interpreted herein to provide support to the claims by many (Ashforth & Humphrey, 1993; Gardner et al., 2009a; Humphrey et al., 2008; Hunt et al., 2008) that properly managed genuine leader emotion should lead to positive outcomes and improperly managed genuine leader emotion should lead to negative outcomes. Here, proper management is contingent upon displaying emotions that ā€œcorrespondā€ with display rules, situational requirements, and audience expectations. Thus, it is recommended herein that leaders closely monitor their behavior, predominately using genuine emotional displays when appropriate and deep acting when their genuine emotions do not align with the requirements of their role
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