85,932 research outputs found

    Genetic Engineering

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    Genetic Engineering: Reprise

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    Genetic engineering for the environment: Ethical implications of the biotechnology revolution

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    This is a PDF version of an article published in Heythrop Journal© 1995. The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com.This article discusses the environmental consequences of genetic engineering for agricultural purposes within a theological and philosophical framework. The advanatges and disadvantages of genetic engineering of crop plants are anlaysed. Theological aspects of genetic engineering and animals and nature are commented upon

    Developing capabilities in the seed industry: which direction to follow?

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    Since the 1990s, many developing country policy makers have assumed that plant genetic engineering represents the only technological frontier in seed innovation; that it has been the leading technology for improving seeds and agricultural performance in those countries where it has been adopted; and that it is the area of biotechnology in which domestic capabilities in seed innovation should be accumulated. In this paper we challenge all those assumptions through an exploration of the role that both genetic engineering and other seed innovation techniques have played in explaining dynamism in the seed market, and wider agricultural economy, in Argentina, focusing on the case of soy. We argue that existing analyses of the impact of plant genetic engineering in Argentina either ignore the performance gains from seed innovations based on techniques other than genetic engineering or misattribute them to genetic engineering. Our analysis, based on data of registered plant varieties, evidence of agricultural performance in Argentina, and interviews with company managers and public sector researchers, seeks to distinguish between the impacts that different approaches to seed innovation have had on the soy sector. We argue that, from the data available, non-genetic engineering seed innovations appear to have had a very significant direct effect on farm-level soy productivity, much more so than those based on genetic engineering, and that they offer just as plausible a contributing explanation for indirect effects on productivity that are normally attributed to genetic engineering. Our findings are preliminary, but they stand in stark contrast to the very widely held view that genetic engineering has played a central, transformative role in the revitalisation and internationally competitive performance of soy production in Argentina over the last two decades. They also have a number of potential implications for the allocation of resources and policy support to the seed industry, and, more generally to how technological options should be considered and assessed in strategies for developing technological capabilities. Our analysis is framed by and contributes to an emerging body of research within the innovation literature that challenges deterministic, unidirectional approaches to analysing technological change in emerging economies

    Some Notes on Genetic Engineering

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    Genetic engineering and trade

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    Advocates of the use of genetic engineering techniques in agriculture contend that this new biotechnology promises increased productivity, better use of natural resources and more nutritious foods. Opponents, on the other hand, are concerned about potentially adverse implications for the environment and food safety. In response to consumer reactions against genetically modified (GM) foods in some countries - particularly in Western Europe - crop production is being segregated into GM and non-GM varieties. This paper investigates how such changes in the maize and soybean sectors may affect international trade patterns, with particular attention given to different groups of developing countries.Biotechnology. ,Environmental impact analysis. ,Genetic engineering. ,International trade. ,Developing countries. ,Agriculture. ,TMD ,

    Genetic engineering possibilities for CELSS: A bibliography and summary of techniques

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    A bibliography of the most useful techniques employed in genetic engineering of higher plants, bacteria associated with plants, and plant cell cultures is provided. A resume of state-of-the-art genetic engineering of plants and bacteria is presented. The potential application of plant bacterial genetic engineering to CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System) program and future research needs are discussed

    Genetic engineering of infectious rabies virus

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    Collective action framing genetic engineering resistance in New Zealand

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    The genetic engineering resistance movement in New Zealand constructed strategic and meaningful interpretations of why the genetic engineering technique is problematic and what can be done about it. There are four central interpretations – explored here as collective action frames – that were used by key movement activists in their mobilisation activities. These four frames describe genetic engineering as ‘involving a wide range of issues’, ‘risky’, ‘unnatural’ and as ‘all about the ownership of life’. The characteristics of these frames are explained in this paper, along with an analysis of why it is that activists were able to achieve widespread resonance through their deployment of them. The successful framing and articulation of movement grievances is a critical movement activity for engagement of civil society in issues of great importance
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