61,811 research outputs found

    The HLA-E Gene encodes two differentially regulated Transcripts and a Cell Surface Protein

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    An HLA-E-specific oligonucleotide probe was used to study the expressioonf HLA-E. This probed etects two HLA-E transcripts, 1.8 and 2.7 kb in size, which are present in varying ratios in allt issues and cell lines investigated. We demonstrate that alternative poly(A) site usage accounts for the differential regulation of the two HLA-E mRNA species. Sequence analysis of three cDNA clones, representing the two transcripts of HLA-E, and of anH LA-E gene encoded by cosmid cd3.14, revealed identity of gene and cDNA in the 3’ untranslated region. S1 nuclease protection assays confirmed that the two HLA-E transcripts are not alternative splicing products. Introduction of cd3.14, together with human ,&m into the murine myeloma cell line P3X63-Ag8.653, resulted in a cell surface expresosf ioan HLA-class I heavy chain detectablbey indirect immunofluorescence whereas transfection into the humBaznr n expressing mouse L cell line, 527 was negative with regard to cell surface expressionC. ell surface labeling of transfectants and immunoprecipitation with a monomorphic HLA class I-specific antibodyo r an antibody against human &m confirmed the presence of an HLA-E H chain on the cell surface. These results indicate that the HLA-E gene codes for a class I H chain that can be expressed on the cell surface

    The Arabidopsis JAGGED gene encodes a zinc finger protein that promotes leaf tissue development

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    Important goals in understanding leaf development are to identify genes involved in pattern specification, and also genes that translate this information into cell types and tissue structure. Loss-of-function mutations at the JAGGED (JAG) locus result in Arabidopsis plants with abnormally shaped lateral organs including serrated leaves, narrow floral organs, and petals that contain fewer but more elongate cells. jag mutations also suppress bract formation in leafy, apetala1 and apetala2 mutant backgrounds. The JAG gene was identified by map-based cloning to be a member of the zinc finger family of plant transcription factors and encodes a protein similar in structure to SUPERMAN with a single C2H2-type zinc finger, a proline-rich motif and a short leucine-rich repressor motif. JAG mRNA is localized to lateral organ primordia throughout the plant but is not found in the shoot apical meristem. Misexpression of JAG results in leaf fusion and the development of ectopic leaf-like outgrowth from both vegetative and floral tissues. Thus, JAG is necessary for proper lateral organ shape and is sufficient to induce the proliferation of lateral organ tissue

    The Hansenula polymorpha PER8 Gene Encodes a Novel Peroxisomal Integral Membrane Protein Involved in Proliferation

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    We previously described the isolation of mutants of the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha that are defective in peroxisome biogenesis. Here, we describe the characterization of one of these mutants, per8, and the cloning of the PER8 gene. In either methanol or methylamine medium, conditions that normally induce the organdies, per8 cells contain no peroxisome-like structures and peroxisomal enzymes are located in the cytosol. The sequence of PER8 predicts that its product (Per8p) is a novel polypeptide of 34 kD, and antibodies against Per8p recognize a protein of 31 kD. Analysis of the primary sequence of Per8p revealed a 39-amino-acid cysteine-rich segment with similarity to the C3HC4 family of zinc-finger motifs. Overexpression of PER8 results in a markedly enhanced increase in peroxisome numbers. We show that Per8p is an integral membrane protein of the peroxisome and that it is concentrated in the membranes of newly formed organdies. We propose that Per8p is a component of the molecular machinery that controls the proliferation of this organelle.

    Could the Anti-Chaperone VER155008 Replace Temozolomide for Glioma Treatment

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    Cancer inducible molecular chaperone HSP90 is of great importance as an anticancer target. Proteomic analysis showed that inhibiting HSP90 by the geldanamycin derivative, 17-AAG elevated the expression of the co-chaperone Hsp70. In this study we used HSP90 selective inhibitor 17-AAG and HSP70/90 dual inhibitor, VER155008 (VER) in U87-MG glioma cells. miRNAs microarray technology was used to evaluate the efficacy of these inhibitory drugs compared with temozolomide (TMZ), used as a standard treatment for glioma. Microarrays data identified 154 differentially expressed miRNAs using stringent or unstringent parameters. 16 miRNAs were overlapped between treatments, 13 upregulated and one downregulated miRNA were overlapped between TMZ and VER. The miRNA target prediction software was used for these overlapped miRNAs and identified 6 of the 13 upregulated miRNAs target methyltransferase genes. The IC50, together with Akt and HSP70 and 90 protein level data favour VER and TMZ to 17-AAG, however due to the selectivity of VER to cancer cells as a potent antichaperon, it may be more favourable to the standard TMZ

    Ghrelin axis genes, peptides and receptors : recent findings and future challenges

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    The ghrelin axis consists of the gene products of the ghrelin gene (GHRL), and their receptors, including the classical ghrelin receptor GHSR. While it is well-known that the ghrelin gene encodes the 28 amino acid ghrelin peptide hormone, it is now also clear that the locus encodes a range of other bioactive molecules, including novel peptides and non-coding RNAs. For many of these molecules, the physiological functions and cognate receptor(s) remain to be determined. Emerging research techniques, including proteogenomics, are likely to reveal further ghrelin axis-derived molecules. Studies of the role of ghrelin axis genes, peptides and receptors, therefore, promises to be a fruitful area of basic and clinical research in years to come

    A compendium and functional characterization of mammalian genes involved in adaptation to Arctic or Antarctic environments

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    Many mammals are well adapted to surviving in extremely cold environments. These species have likely accumulated genetic changes that help them efficiently cope with low temperatures. It is not known whether the same genes related to cold adaptation in one species would be under selection in another species. The aims of this study therefore were: to create a compendium of mammalian genes related to adaptations to a low temperature environment; to identify genes related to cold tolerance that have been subjected to independent positive selection in several species; to determine promising candidate genes/pathways/organs for further empirical research on cold adaptation in mammals