2,002 research outputs found

    Feasibility of reintroduction of European Bison (Bison bonasus) to Sweden with focus on traffic accidents

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    The historical occurrence of European bison (Bison bonasus) in Sweden during the early Holocene emphasizes the ecological significance for a potential reintroduction. The European bison, the largest herbivore on the European continent, is a keystone species with a significant influence on ecosystem dynamics. To restore populations of European bison is an important conservation concern Road collisions with wild animals are a significant problem on a global scale and an important aspect to consider when large terrestrial mammal populations are restored. This study aims to assess the relative involvement in traffic incidences of European bison and moose (Alces alces) in Poland, where both species occur in the wild. Accidents involving European bison were analyzed and compared with those involving moose during 2014-2022. Four regions were defined and analyzed: Lublin and Subcarpathian provinces; Podlaskie province; Warmian-Masurian province; and Northwest region comprising Lubuskie, Wielkopolskie, and Zachodnipomorskie provinces. The results revealed substantial variations in accident ratios between European bison and moose in different regions. In the Lublin and Subcarpathian regions a significant difference was observed (p = 0.02). The Podlaskie region demonstrated the most pronounced disparity (p < 0.001). In the Warmian-Masurian region, significant differences were again observed (p = 0.003). Conversely, in the Northwest region, no significant difference was found. Overall, the combined analysis across all regions also indicated a highly significant difference (p < 0.001). The overall average accident rate per 100 European bison was 0.49, while for moose it was 1.03. This suggests that moose had a 2.12 times higher accident rate compared to European bison. Additionally, European bison traffic collisions generally result in less severe outcomes compared to moose and other animals, typically causing no fatalities or only minor injuries to drivers and passengers. Considering the relatively low frequency and severity of the traffic collisions, European bison reintroduction efforts may face fewer traffic-related challenges than moose. European bison have demonstrated adaptability across varied landscapes including open areas, forests, and their transitional zones, all of which can be found in southern Sweden. As a generalist grazing species, the dietary requirements of European bison align with available food resources. Climate compatibility is affirmed, as historical and current distribution ranges of European bison encompass regions with more severe climates than southern Sweden. Along with the relatively low risk for traffic incidents as observed in this study, this underline the potential success of reintroducing European bison to the region. Nevertheless, it is important to effectively manage potential conflicts between humans and wildlife. It is advisable to engage in subsequent monitoring and research to gain a better understanding of these challenges during the implementation of reintroduction efforts in a new area

    Antibodies against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and Brucella spp. in captive and free-living European bison (Bison bonasus) in Poland

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    Background: The European bison (Bison bonasus), a symbol of Polish nature, is a protected species that requires active health monitoring. However, conservation efforts are made difficult by the zoonotic diseases such as brucellosis and tuberculosis. Objective: The aim of this study was to screen the Polish European bison population for exposure to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and Brucella spp. Methods: A total of 323 free-living and captive European bison from 13 localities were tested serologically for antibodies against the M. bovis P22 multi-protein complex (in-house ELISA) and against Brucella spp. (commercial ELISA). Results: Antibodies against the MTC (P22) were detected in 7% (22/323) of the tested European bison. Anti-MTC antibody positivity was not significantly different by sex, age, and captive/free range status. Anti-MTC antibodies were found in six of 13 populations sampled, always in populations with larger sample sizes including the four free-living ones. Antibodies against Brucella spp. were detected in 36% (116/323) of the tested bison. While Brucella spp. antibody prevalence was not different by sex, it was significantly different by age (lower in adults) and captive/free-living status. Brucella spp. seroprevalence decreased with sample size and seropositive bison were found in 12 of 13 sampling populations. Conclusions: Our findings identify potential emerging threats to the European bison population and confirm the first serological response to P22 in European bison. As Poland is currently officially free of brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis, our results require careful interpretation. Further studies are needed to establish the presence of cross-reactions with atypical mycobacteria in the case of MTC and other bacteria (e.g. Yersinia enterocolitica O:9) in the case of Brucella spp.Complex project of European bison conservation by State Forests, Forest Fund (Poland), Grant/Award Number: contract no OR.271.3.10.2017.S

    Infectious Disease Monitoring of European Bison (<em>Bison bonasus</em>)

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    In 2019, the 90th anniversary of the restitution of European bison (wisent) will be celebrated. Therefore, the chapter discusses the past, present, and future health threats of the Bison bonasus species that was on the edge of world extinction at the beginning of the twentieth century and was restituted with great efforts from many researchers, breeders, forestry workers, and caretakers. Due to the dramatic genetic “bottleneck” that depleted the gene pool, increasing the inbred of today’s European bison, the breeding may face problems of decreased fertility, deficiency in growth, and increased susceptibility to diseases. While the increasing numbers of European bison may be enjoyed by breeders, the suitable habitat for the largest herbivore in Europe shrinks with increasing human population density, forestry, and agricultural activity. Additional threats include inappropriate management based on animal farming rather than sylvatic ecosystems, need for supplementary winter feeding, and establishment of breeding of related species such as American bison (Bison bison) in Europe. The control of European bison exposure to pathogens through passive and active surveillance is a key component of the species conservation. Hereby, the current knowledge on the epidemiology of the most significant infectious diseases in European bison is presented

    Assessment of S100 protein expression in the epididymis of juvenile and adult European bison.

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    In our study, we decided to compare S100 protein expression in the material obtained from the epididymes of 5- and 12-month-old calves, and adult European bison, and to detect any differences in S100 expression according to the animal age and size of the organ examined. We used the epididymes obtained from 6 adult European bison aged 6-12 years, from 6 at the age of 12 months and 6 calves aged 5 months. Immunocytochemical reactions were performed using the avidin-biotinylated-peroxidase (ABC) technique according to HSU. Specific polyclonal rabbit antiserum against bovine S100 protein (Bio Genex Laboratories) at a dilution at 1:400 was applied. We found the expression of S100 protein in endothelial cells of arteries, veins and lymphatic vessels in all the study animals. At the same time, we found no differences in the expression of S100 protein in vascular endothelial cells. Our observations seem to indicate that S100 expression in endothelial cells of European bison epididymis is not correlated with age or maturity of the organ tested. We found S100 protein in smooth muscle cells of arteries and veins in all European bison specimens examined. Interestingly in the current study, in young 5-month-old sexually immature European bison specimens we observed weaker expression of S100 protein in smooth muscle cells of small vessels as compared to the same cell type both in large vessels in these animals and in small vessels in adult specimens

    In Search of Species-Specific SNPs in a Non-Model Animal (European Bison (Bison bonasus))—Comparison of De Novo and Reference-Based Integrated Pipeline of STACKS Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS) Data

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    SIMPLE SUMMARY: The European bison is a dramatically low-diversified species, commonly analyzed using cattle-dedicated tools. Our aim was to compare two genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) pipelines: de novo and reference pipeline, using the STACKS software and to reveal the maximum possible number of species-specific SNPs for our further project on European bison health. Therefore, we compared two genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) pipelines: de novo (non-reference based) and a reference-based, using the STACKS software. We found a higher number of polymorphic loci from the reference pipeline in comparison to the de novo one. Next, we compared the results of the reference pipeline for the draft genome of European bison and completely annotated the Bos taurus genome. Higher numbers of polymorphic loci were revealed in European bison than in Bos taurus through the reference pipeline. We observed a possible effect of PCR duplicates on GBS data, as previously reported with the RADSeq approach. We recommend using a reference pipeline without PCR duplicates as a more efficient tool for species with low genetic diversity. ABSTRACT: The European bison is a non-model organism; thus, most of its genetic and genomic analyses have been performed using cattle-specific resources, such as BovineSNP50 BeadChip or Illumina Bovine 800 K HD Bead Chip. The problem with non-specific tools is the potential loss of evolutionary diversified information (ascertainment bias) and species-specific markers. Here, we have used a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach for genotyping 256 samples from the European bison population in Bialowieza Forest (Poland) and performed an analysis using two integrated pipelines of the STACKS software: one is de novo (without reference genome) and the other is a reference pipeline (with reference genome). Moreover, we used a reference pipeline with two different genomes, i.e., Bos taurus and European bison. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) is a useful tool for SNP genotyping in non-model organisms due to its cost effectiveness. Our results support GBS with a reference pipeline without PCR duplicates as a powerful approach for studying the population structure and genotyping data of non-model organisms. We found more polymorphic markers in the reference pipeline in comparison to the de novo pipeline. The decreased number of SNPs from the de novo pipeline could be due to the extremely low level of heterozygosity in European bison. It has been confirmed that all the de novo/Bos taurus and Bos taurus reference pipeline obtained SNPs were unique and not included in 800 K BovineHD BeadChip

    Morphometry and topography of the coronary ostia in the European bison

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    Background: Coronary vessels have been widely studied in many species of domestic and wild mammals. However, there are no available literature reports describing the morphology and morphometry of the coronary ostia of the European bison (Bison bonasus). The aim of this study was to measure the area of the coronary ostia and assess their localisation in the coronary sinuses of the aortic root in the European bison. Materials and methods: The study material comprised 27 hearts from European bison of both sexes (16 males and 11 females), from 3 months to 26 years old, inhabiting the Bialowieza Forest (Bialowieza National Park, Poland). The animals were divided into two age groups: ≤ 5 years (group I) and &gt; 5 years (group II). Results: In all the studied European bison, the aortic valve consisted of three semilunar leaflets, left, right and septal. The ostia of both coronary arteries were located beneath the sinotubular junction. The dimensions of the left coronary ostium were larger than those of the right coronary ostium. They were longer by on average 4.5 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.5–5.6 mm), they were wider by on average 1.6 mm (95% CI 1.0–2.2 mm) and they had a larger area by on average 31.6 mm2 (95% CI 22.7–40.5 mm2). This was evident both in young and in adult bison. After adjusting for age, there were no differences in the ostia dimensions between males and females. There were no differences in the structure of the left and right coronary arteries in nine animals. In the remaining 18 animals, there were variations in the morphology of the coronary ostia or additional ostia. Conclusions: Because of the anatomical similarity between the European bison and other ruminants, the results of this study can be applied to the other species including endangered ones

    Bisonicola sedecimdecembrii (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) from European bison – redescription of adults and description of juvenile stages

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    Bisonicola sedecimdecembrii is a specific parasite of the genus Bison. The European bison became completely extinct in natural conditions at the beginning of the 20th century, and the currently existing wild populations are a result of successful restitution and reintroduction. Only three European bison-specific parasites have survived until now, including the chewing louse B. sedecimdecembrii, described from the female by Eichler (1946). This paper redescribes the adults and describes the juvenile stages for the first time, based on the analysis of 1,203 specimens of B. sedecimdecembrii from 115 bison from Poland

    Chemical structure of european bison musculus longissimus dorsi at different stages of age

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    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition of musculus longissimus dorsi muscle in European bison (Bison bonasus) of the age 6, 9, 12 and 14 years. In m. longissimus dorsi water content was from 74.90 g (group until 6 years of age) until 75.70 g.100 g-1 (group until 12 years of age). Non statistically significant differences (P≥0.05) were found between groups of age. In m. longissimus dorsi the protein content was statistically significant during aging (P≥0.05) of the European bison from 21.23 (group until 12 years of age) until 22.34 g.100 g-1 (group until 14 years of age). The protein content is comparable with the values of steers and bulls of different breeds of cattle feedlot and meat buffalo. The m. longissimus dorsi fat content of European bison was represented from 1.26 g (group until 12 years of age) to 2.11 g.100 g-1 (group until 9 years of age), without statistical differences (P≥0.05) between groups of age. Fat levels are comparable with American bison fat levels and European bison meat from this perspective be regarded as high dietary, maybe. Tendency increasing of fat content in muscle with increasing age of animals was not confirmed (P≥0.05) but was confirmed that this variable indicator has the greatest potential impact nutrition. Energy value in 100 g m. longissimus dorsi was from 402.81 kJ (group until 12 years of age) to 447.07 kJ.100 g-1 (group to 9 years of age). The energy value in 100 g muscle was recorded only statistical differences (P≤0.05) in the group 9 and 12 years of age. Experiment results confirmed that the European bison meat is good article and possible supplement in the diet and the human food chain especially in states where the farm is kept in a manner respectively, as a delicacy, because it contains low representation of fat, what ultimately increases its particular dietary value, moving it from this perspective, even before the beef meat

    The morphology of the hypoglossal canal and its size in relation to skull capacity in man and other mammal species

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    The hypoglossal canal is a permanent element of the human skull. As well as the hypoglossal nerve, the canal also contains the venous plexus and an arterial branch leading to the dura mater. It emerged from our earlier studies that the venous plexus is a dominant component in this canal. In the present work the morphology and dimensions of the canal were studied on macerated skulls of humans and animals (rhesus monkey, European bison, fox, dog, cat, hare and rat). The hypoglossal canal was found in all the human and animal skulls examined. In both humans and animals the hypoglossal canal was frequently duplicated. The double canal was found in 43% specimens of human skulls. However, no triple division of the hypoglossal canal was found in the material under investigation. It was found that the hypoglossal canal in man, rhesus monkey and European bison had significant dimensions and in fact correlated with the size of skull capacity. This suggests that the hypoglossal canal is an essential venous emissary in man, rhesus monkey and European bison, but that in the remaining species it is of secondary importance in this respect
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