15,834 research outputs found

    HUBUNGAN ANTARA EMOTIONAL LABOR DENGAN BURNOUT PADA PEGAWAI BADAN PUSAT STATISTIK (BPS) KOTA SEMARANG

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    ABSTRAK Burnout adalah suatu kondisi kelelahan baik secara fisik, mental, maupun emosional yang dihasilkan oleh kerja yang berlebihan. Emotional labor merupakan kemampuan individu dalam melakukan kontrol untuk mengelola emosi dengan menampilkannya secara profesional sesuai dengan tuntutan organisasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara emotional labor dengan burnout pada pegawai BPS Kota Semarang. Subjek dalam penelitian ini adalah pegawai BPS Kota Semarang yang berjumlah 41 orang. Pengambilan sampel dalam penelitian ini menggunakan teknik sampling jenuh dengan mengambil seluruh anggota populasi sebagai sampel. Penelitian ini menggunakan dua skala sebagai alat ukur, yaitu skala burnout (29 aitem dengan α = 0,906) dan skala emotional labor (27 aitem dengan α = 0,886). Berdasarkan analisis regresi sederhana didapatkan bahwa ada hubungan yang signifikan antara emotional labor dengan burnout (rxy = -0,490 dengan p = 0,001). Semakin tinggi emotional labor maka akan semakin rendah burnout. Sebaliknya, semakin rendah emotional labor maka burnout yang dirasakan pegawai akan semakin tinggi. Emotional labor memberikan sumbangan efektif sebesar 24 % terhadap burnout. Kata kunci: Emotional labor, Burnout, Pegawai, BPS Kota Semaran

    Faking it: a conceptual discussion on emotional labor, emotional dissonance and emotional intelligence

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    Emotional labor is a construct that is intertwined with the hospitality industry as employees are required to accommodate certain behavior or emotion to conform with the idea of providing excellent and sincere service to guests or customers. The concept of emotional labor will be further investigated and so does the implication of its utilization. In mentioning emotional labor, one would relate it with emotional dissonance as emotional labor has two forms which are surface acting and deep acting. The internal conflict between the inner feeling and displayed emotion is what termed emotional dissonance. The hospitality industry requires their employees to present their selves in a certain way as prescribed by each establishment. Thus, there are bound to be dissonances in the emotions of the employees. Previous literature also supports the idea of emotional intelligence playing a role in emotional labor with emotional labor having a positive relationship with emotional labor. Therefore, this paper is written with the idea of discussing conceptually the two variables and to explore Emotional Labor and Dissonance in detail; with elaboration of how emotional intelligence relates to them

    What Emotional Labor is: A Review of Literature

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    The dominance of customer over the production/service employee, and as a result of this, increasing use of emotional labor in the workplace furthers the need to understand what emotional labor is. In this regard, the present paper reviews the literature to explain the concept ‘emotional labor’. In explaining emotional labor and its nomological network, the paper discusses the factors that affect and are affected by it. This paper contributes to the existing literature by assimilating different works done in this domain and providing a comprehensive understanding of emotional labor. This paper focuses on some of the critical issues, about which, the existing literature on emotional labor is silent and thus, providing a platform for further research.

    Emotional Labor Dan Organizational Citizenship Behavior Pada Perawat RSUD Dr. R Goeteng Taroenadibrata Purbalingga

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    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara emotional labor dengan organizational citizenship behavior pada perawat RSUD. Populasi penelitian adalah perawat RSUD dr. R Goeteng Taroenadibrata Purbalingga sebanyak 161 perawat. Sampel penelitian sebanyak 82 perawat dengan mean usia 36 tahun. Sampel diambil dengan cara acak pada perawat semua bangsal sesuai kebutuhan penelitian. Pengumpulan data menggunakan Skala Organizational Citizenship Behavior (18 aitem,α =0.83) dan Skala Emotional Labor (17 aitem,α =0.81). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan hubungan positif antara emotional labor dengan organizational citizenship behavior pada perawat dr. R Goeteng Taroenadibrata Purbalingga dengan rxy=0,391 dan p=0,000. Emotional labor memberikan sumbangan efektif sebesar 15,3% pada organizational citizenship behavior

    Does the Emotional Labor of the Service Employee Affect the Self-concept of the Consumer in Service Organization?

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    In service interactions the management of service employee’s emotion through emotional labor has gained prominence and is becoming an active method to affect consumer’s behavior. Several researches have indicated that self-concept of the consumer affects their buying behavior. However there is not much research to evaluate the effect of emotional labor of the service employee on the self-concept of the consumer. Based on review of literature, this paper tries to answer whether emotional labor of the service employee affects the self-concept of the consumer.

    Emotional Labor

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    What is emotional labor? Emotional labor is “the management of feelings to create a publicly observable facial and bodily display” as necessary at work (Hochschild, 2012, p. 50). Thus, people engage in emotional labor when they ensure their facial expressions and body language match what is expected for the job (Grandey, 2000). Clear display rules (e.g., always smile, show empathy, stay neutral, seem stern) are most typically seen within service industries (e.g., customer service, protective services, law enforcement). People accomplish this adherence to display rules through surface acting—managing the expression of emotions—or through deep acting—managing the experience of emotions (Hochschild, 2012). That is, people can either fake the emotion or try to feel what they are supposed to exhibit. Jobs may require people to show certain emotions (e.g., look like you are enjoying yourself) or suppress certain emotions (e.g., never let them see you sweat), but the goals are the same: create “the proper state of mind in others,” in order to improve workplace interactions and organizational outcomes (Hochschild, 2012, p. 30). Emotional labor is typically measured by assessing the (a) frequency with which individuals use emotional labor on the job, (b) whether surface or deep acting is used, and (c) whether individuals feel they are expected to express positive emotions or suppress negative emotions. There are several measures that are more commonly used to assess these various aspects of emotional labor. Example items from these measures include: Frequency: “On an average day at work, how frequently do you display specific emotions required by your job?” (Brotheridge & Lee, 1998) Surface Acting: “I put on an act in order to deal with customers in an appropriate way.” (Diefendorff, Croyle, & Gosserand, 2005) Deep Acting: “I work at developing the feelings inside of me that I need to show to customers.” (Diefendorff et al., 2005) Display Rules: “This organization would say that part of the product to customers is friendly, cheerful service.” (Grandey, 2003) January 13, 2021 Why is emotional labor important? Emotional labor is important because it is moderately associated with job satisfaction and burnout and modestly related to job performance (Kammeyer-Mueller, Rubenstein, Long, Odio, Buckman, Zhang, & Halvorsen-Ganepola, 2013). In addition, emotional labor is moderately associated with turnover intentions (Mesmer-Magnus, Dechurch, Wax, & Anderson, 2012), though the connection to actual turnover is unknown. People who engage in emotional labor at work are more likely to have good job performance ratings but also to feel burned out and unhappy in the job. This is especially true when the emotional labor strategy is surface acting. For example, surface acting is associated with burnout, whereas deep acting is not (Kammeyer-Mueller et al., 2013). Similarly, using surface acting is associated with lower job satisfaction but is not associated with job performance. Deep acting, on the other hand, is associated with higher job performance but not job satisfaction. Thus, the negative consequences of emotional labor are more likely with surface acting than with deep acting. This may be due to the incongruence between emotions and actions when one employs surface acting versus the congruence when someone employs deep acting (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2012). Why contributes to emotional labor? Meta-analytic research on emotional labor has thus far focused on assessing factors that are merely associated with emotional labor, not on causal relationships. However, there are many additional factors that are associated with emotional labor and seen as potential influencers (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2012), which may help agencies with hiring and training that could mitigate the potential consequences of emotional labor. These factors fall into three categories: perceived expectations, personality, and supervisor behaviors. Perceived Expectations Employees’ perception that their organization expects them to use specific facial expressions and body language with customers is associated with surface and deep acting (Kammeyer-Mueller et al., 2013). Specifically, perceived negative display rules (i.e., the perception that the organization expects employees to suppress negative emotions) are more strongly related to surface acting than deep acting. Perceived positive display rules (i.e., the perception that the organization expects employees to demonstrate positive emotions), on the other hand, are more strongly related to deep acting than surface acting. Personality As with organizational expectations, personality relates differently to surface and deep acting (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2012). Individuals who score high on neuroticism and negative affectivity (i.e., people who generally think negatively) are more likely to employ surface acting. Those who score high on conscientiousness, positive affectivity, openness to experience, extraversion, and emotional intelligence are more likely to engage in more deep acting and less likely to engage in surface acting. Supervisor Behaviors Perceived supervisor support is modestly related to emotional labor (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2012). Again, the relationship is different depending on the strategy employed. Those who perceive more supervisor support are more likely to use deep acting and less likely to use surface acting. QIC-WD Takeaways ► Emotional labor is moderately associated with lower job satisfaction, higher burnout, and higher turnover intentions. ► Emotional labor is modestly associated with higher job performance. ► The connection between emotional labor and potential outcomes depends on the type of emotional labor strategy used (i.e., surface vs. deep acting). ► Surface acting is associated with higher burnout, but deep acting is not. ► Surface acting is associated with lower job satisfaction, but deep acting is not. ► Deep acting is associated with better performance ratings, but surface acting is not. ► When people believe they are expected to express or suppress certain emotions, they are more likely to engage in surface and deep acting. ► Personality characteristics and supervisor support may influence the type of emotional labor that is used and, thus, the extent of potential negative consequences such as lower job satisfaction, burnout, and intent to turnover. ► Practitioners and researchers who would like to assess emotional labor should consider using measures from Brotheridge and Lee (1998), Grandey (2003), or Diefendorff, Croyle, and Gosserand (2005). In some cases, minor adaptations would be needed to make them suitable for child welfare employees

    Hubungan antara Emotional Labor dengan Burnout pada Pegawai Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) Kota Semarang

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    Burnout adalah suatu kondisi kelelahan baik secara fisik, mental, maupun emosional yang dihasilkan oleh kerja yang berlebihan. Emotional labor merupakan kemampuan individu dalam melakukan kontrol untuk mengelola emosi dengan menampilkannya secara profesional sesuai dengan tuntutan organisasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara emotional labor dengan burnout pada pegawai BPS Kota Semarang. Subjek dalam penelitian ini adalah pegawai BPS Kota Semarang yang berjumlah 41 orang. Pengambilan sampel dalam penelitian ini menggunakan teknik sampling jenuh dengan mengambil seluruh anggota populasi sebagai sampel. Penelitian ini menggunakan dua skala sebagai alat ukur, yaitu skala burnout (29 aitem, α = 0,906) dan skala emotional labor (27 aitem, α = 0,886). Berdasarkan analisis regresi sederhana didapatkan bahwa ada hubungan yang signifikan antara emotional labor dengan burnout (rxy = -0,490 dengan p = 0,001). Semakin tinggi emotional labor maka akan semakin rendah burnout. Sebaliknya, semakin rendah emotional labor maka burnout yang dirasakan pegawai akan semakin tinggi. Emotional labor memberikan sumbangan efektif sebesar 24 % terhadap burnout

    Personality and Emotional Labor: Is

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    The purpose of the current study was to develop and empirically test an updated model of emotional labor. A review of emotional labor literature from the past decade was reviewed and the proposed model and supporting research presented. The current study used an experimental design to examine personality, task performance, and the mediating role of emotional labor. Participants were 157 students from the University of Memphis that were assessed using personality measures, an emotional labor role-play, and a work performance task. Results did not support commitment as a moderator in the relationship between display rules and emotional labor performance and exhaustion was not a mediator in the relationship between emotional labor performance and non-interpersonal work task performance. Additionally, emotional labor performance did not act as a mediator between acting preference and exhaustion. One personality variable, extraversion, was a significant predictor of emotional labor performance. Results from the proposed study contribute to the fields of selection, personality, and emotional labor

    Emotional labor and authentic leadership

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    Organizational research has begun to once again focus on the importance of emotions in the workplace. In particular, the concept of emotional labor, the management of emotions at work to influence clients and customers, has recently received much attention. While research has addressed the impact of emotional labor on both employees and clients or customers, research has not examined emotional labor within the context of leadership. Authentic leadership, an emerging construct in the study of leadership, is proposed to relate to emotional labor. Leaders\u27 authentic behavior has been shown to positively impact followers, such as increasing trust in their leader or positive job attitudes as in job satisfaction and organizational commitment. While authenticity refers to being true to oneself, emotional labor involves the alteration of one\u27s felt emotions in order to generate a particular emotional display. Given that engaging in emotional labor seems contrary to behaving authentically, emotional labor was expected to impact both leaders and followers through authenticity. Specifically, emotional labor was hypothesized to have detrimental effects on a leader\u27s felt authenticity and followers\u27 perceptions of authenticity, leader emotional exhaustion, and followers\u27 trust in their leader. However, emotional labor was expected to positively impact evaluations of leader emotional displays. In addition, individual differences in self-monitoring were expected to influence the emotional labor leaders performed. Self-monitoring was expected to exacerbate the effect of emotional labor; leaders high in self-monitoring were expected to engage in more emotional labor. This study examined these relationships using a controlled, laboratory design. Assigned leaders led a team instructed to perform a collaborative task. Leaders were responsible for communicating the task requirements to their group and for managing the group throughout the task. In addition to the task, participants completed surveys assessing emotional display rule perceptions, emotional labor, self-monitoring, leader emotional displays, authenticity, emotional exhaustion, and trust. Results indicate that leaders\u27 emotional labor was unrelated to their felt and perceived authenticity or leader emotional displays, but did relate to their emotional exhaustion. Self-monitoring did influence leaders\u27 emotional labor, although contrary to expectations. Leaders\u27 emotional displays and perceived authenticity did significantly relate to their followers\u27 trust

    Can I Smile with Spirit? Towards a Process Model Associating Workplace Spirituality and Emotional Labor

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    Workplace spirituality (WS) is a framework of organizational values embedded in the culture of the organization that promotes employees to experience a sense of meaningfulness at work, sense of connection with coworkers, congruence of organizational values with theirs\u27 and experience transcendence through their work. This dissertation presents workplace spirituality as an organizational intervention to manage the problem of emotional labor and its dysfunctional consequences among the service employees. The main thesis of the dissertation is that workplace spirituality will enable service employees to appraise emotional labor as a positive stressor (challenge stressor) rather than a negative stressor (hindrance stressor). The positive appraisal of emotional labor as a challenge stressor will enable employees to manage the negative consequences of emotional labor on the individual outcomes of burnout and turnover intention, with a positive outlook. The dissertation presents a process model explaining how the perception of workplace spirituality in organizations affect emotional labor strategies and individual outcomes. The dissertation predicts resilience as a mediator between workplace spirituality and cognitive appraisal of emotional labor. Additionally, the study predicts that challenge appraisal of emotional labor has a positive relationship with deep acting emotional labor strategy while hindrance appraisal of emotional labor has a positive relationship with surface acting emotional labor strategy. Furthermore, the deep acting strategy is hypothesized to be negatively associated with burnout and turnover intention, respectively while surface acting emotional strategy is hypothesized to have a positive association with burnout and turnover intention, respectively. This dissertation has some implication to both theory and practice. The major theoretical implication of the study is that it contributes to the literature of workplace spirituality and emotional labor separately. Additionally, it integrates psychological stress literature with emotional labor and workplace spirituality to present a comprehensive framework to explain the underlying evaluation of emotional labor. Furthermore, it seeks to inform the managers how a transcending workplace (workplace spirituality) can facilitate as a self-managing mechanism for employees to better manage their emotions at work, thereby reducing the negative consequences of emotional labor such as burnout and turnover intention
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