957,325 research outputs found

    Low temperature expansion of the gonihedric Ising model

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    We investigate a model of closed (d1)(d-1)-dimensional soft-self-avoiding random surfaces on a dd-dimensional cubic lattice. The energy of a surface configuration is given by E=J(n2+4kn4)E=J(n_{2}+4k n_{4}), where n2n_{2} is the number of edges, where two plaquettes meet at a right angle and n4n_{4} is the number of edges, where 4 plaquettes meet. This model can be represented as a Z2\Z_{2}-spin system with ferromagnetic nearest-neighbour-, antiferromagnetic next-nearest-neighbour- and plaquette-interaction. It corresponds to a special case of a general class of spin systems introduced by Wegner and Savvidy. Since there is no term proportional to the surface area, the bare surface tension of the model vanishes, in contrast to the ordinary Ising model. By a suitable adaption of Peierls argument, we prove the existence of infinitely many ordered low temperature phases for the case k=0k=0. A low temperature expansion of the free energy in 3 dimensions up to order x38x^{38} (x=eβJx={e}^{-\beta J}) shows, that for k>0k>0 only the ferromagnetic low temperature phases remain stable. An analysis of low temperature expansions up to order x44x^{44} for the magnetization, susceptibility and specific heat in 3 dimensions yields critical exponents, which are in agreement with previous results.Comment: 27 pages, Postscript figures include

    Morris Healthy Eating Community Food Assessment

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    The Morris Healthy Eating Community Food Assessment documents an engaged and enthusiastic community ready for greater access to affordable fresh fruits, vegetables, and other healthy foods. A yearlong comprehensive community food assessment shows: college students and community members with an interest in better health and in eating healthy foods; abundant community food and health resources; some barriers to healthy eating; a host of opportunities to provide great access to affordable healthy foods. The report summarizes the work of the Morris Healthy Eating team since its founding in 2009. Its recommendations offer a map to a healthier future for the University of Minnesota, Morris, the city of Morris, and Stevens County

    Perceived eating norms and children's eating behaviour: an informational social influence account.

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    open access articleThere is initial evidence that beliefs about the eating behaviour of others (perceived eating norms) can influence children's vegetable consumption, but little research has examined the mechanisms explaining this effect. In two studies we aimed to replicate the effect that perceived eating norms have on children's vegetable consumption, and to explore mechanisms which may underlie the influence of perceived eating norms on children's vegetable consumption. Study 1 investigated whether children follow perceived eating norms due to a desire to maintain personal feelings of social acceptance. Study 2 investigated whether perceived eating norms influence eating behaviour because eating norms provide information which can remove uncertainty about how to behave. Across both studies children were exposed to vegetable consumption information of other children and their vegetable consumption was examined. In both studies children were influenced by perceived eating norms, eating more when led to believe others had eaten a large amount compared to when led to believe others had eaten no vegetables. In Study 1, children were influenced by a perceived eating norm regardless of whether they felt sure or unsure that other children accepted them. In Study 2, children were most influenced by a perceived eating norm if they were eating in a novel context in which it may have been uncertain how to behave, as opposed to an eating context that children had already encountered. Perceived eating norms may influence children's eating behaviour by removing uncertainty about how to behave, otherwise known as informational social influence

    Mindful Eating: Trait and State Mindfulness Predict Healthier Eating Behavior

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    Obesity and excess weight are significant societal problems. Mindfulness may encourage healthier weight and eating habits. Across four studies, we found a positive relation between mindfulness and healthier eating. Trait mindfulness was associated with less impulsive eating, reduced calorie consumption, and healthier snack choices. In addition, we found a causal effect of mindfulness on healthier eating. An experimental manipulation of state mindfulness led participants to consume fewer calories in a spontaneous eating task. We also found preliminary evidence that mindfulness affects eating behavior by encouraging attitudinal preferences for healthier foods. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence that mindfulness encourages healthier eating, even in the absence of specific instruction in mindful eating. These results suggest that generic mindfulness-based strategies could have ancillary benefits for encouraging healthier eating behavior

    Interventions for healthy eating and physical activity among obese elementary schoolchildren : observing changes of the combined effects of behavioral models

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    The aim of this experimental research was to examine the effectiveness of the SSII-Healthy Eating Intervention and Physical Activity intervention programs at the end of intervention implementation in term of combined effects. The sample of this study was 21 students in Sawadeewittaya School, aged 9-11 years, who met the inclusion criteria and consented to participate in the study. The dependent variables included knowledge about obesity-related Type 2 diabetes, healthy eating behavior, healthy eating self-efficacy, healthy eating self-control, and BMI. The study interventions were the SSII-Healthy Eating Intervention Program, and the SSII-Physical Activity Intervention Program. Each of the two interventions was created using the self-efficacy, self-control, and implementation intention principles. The sample was first implemented with the SSII-Healthy Eating Intervention Program, followed by the SSII-Physical Activity Intervention. Data analysis was performed using SPSS for Windows. The statistical tests were descriptive statistics and One-way repeated measures ANOVA. Results showed that: 1) after the individual SSII-Healthy Eating Intervention Program; mean scores of knowledge about obesity-related Type 2 diabetes, healthy eating self-efficacy, healthy eating self-control, and healthy eating behavior significantly increased from the baseline and BMI significantly decreased. 2) The combined effect of the SSII-Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Intervention Programs on healthy eating behavior was greater than that of the individual SSII-Healthy Eating Intervention, but not for BMI

    A core eating network and its modulations underlie diverse eating phenomena

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    We propose that a core eating network and its modulations account for much of what is currently known about the neural activity underlying a wide range of eating phenomena in humans (excluding homeostasis and related phenomena). The core eating network is closely adapted from a network that Kaye, Fudge, and Paulus (2009) proposed to explain the neurocircuitry of eating, including a ventral reward pathway and a dorsal control pathway. In a review across multiple literatures that focuses on experiments using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), we first show that neural responses to food cues, such as food pictures, utilize the same core eating network as eating. Consistent with the theoretical perspective of grounded cognition, food cues activate eating simulations that produce reward predictions about a perceived food and potentially motivate its consumption. Reviewing additional literatures, we then illustrate how various factors modulate the core eating network, increasing and/or decreasing activity in subsets of its neural areas. These modulating factors include food significance (palatability, hunger), body mass index (BMI, overweight/obesity), eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating), and various eating goals (losing weight, hedonic pleasure, healthy living). By viewing all these phenomena as modulating a core eating network, it becomes possible to understand how they are related to one another within this common theoretical framework. Finally, we discuss future directions for better establishing the core eating network, its modulations, and their implications for behavior

    Coping and Emotional Intelligence in Women with a History of Eating Disordered Behavior

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    Eating disorders pose a serious problem in our society. Studies have found that there is a negative correlation between eating disorders and emotional coping mechanisms, a factor of emotional intelligence (EI). This study was designed to discover if women who have a history of eating disorders resemble women who report no current or past history of eating disorders and women with current eating problems. Participants included 157 college females. It was found that women who reported a history of eating problems resembled the control group on most measures

    Tempting food words activate eating simulations

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    This study shows that tempting food words activate simulations of eating the food, including simulations of the taste and texture of the food, simulations of eating situations, and simulations of hedonic enjoyment. In a feature listing task, participants generated features that are typically true of four tempting foods (e.g., chips) and four neutral foods (e.g., rice). The resulting features were coded as features of eating simulations if they referred to the taste, texture, and temperature of the food (e.g., “crunchy”; “sticky”), to situations of eating the food (e.g., “movie”; “good for Wok dishes”), and to the hedonic experience when eating the food (e.g., “tasty”). Based on the grounded cognition perspective, it was predicted that tempting foods are more likely to be represented in terms of actually eating them, so that participants would list more features referring to eating simulations for tempting than for neutral foods. Confirming this hypothesis, results showed that eating simulation features constituted 53% of the features for tempting food, and 26% of the features for neutral food. Visual features, in contrast, were mentioned more often for neutral foods (45%) than for tempting foods (19%). Exploratory analyses revealed that the proportion of eating simulation features for tempting foods was positively correlated with perceived attractiveness of the foods, and negatively with participants’ dieting concerns, suggesting that eating simulations may depend on individuals’ goals with regard to eating. These findings are discussed with regard to their implications for understanding the processes guiding eating behavior, and for interventions designed to reduce the consumption of attractive, unhealthy food

    Perceived eating norms and vegetable consumption in children

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    open access articleBackground Beliefs about the eating behaviour of others (perceived eating norms) have been shown to influence eating behaviour in adults, but no research has examined whether young children are motivated by perceived eating norms. Findings Here we investigated the effect on vegetable intake of exposing children to information about the vegetable intake of other children. One hundred and forty three children aged 6–11 years old took part in a between-subjects experiment. Children were exposed to information suggesting that other children had eaten a large amount of carrots, no carrots, or control information. Children ate more carrots when they believed that other children had eaten a large amount of carrots, compared to all other conditions. Conclusions Perceived eating norms can influence vegetable intake in young children and making use of eating norms to promote healthier eating in children warrants investigation

    Binge and Emotional Eating in obese subjects seeking weight loss treatment

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    Objective: Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is highly prevalent among individuals seeking weight loss treatment. Considering the possible trigger factors for BED, different studies focused on the role of emotional eating. The present study compared threshold, subthreshold BED, and subjects without BED in a population of overweight/obese individuals seeking weight loss treatment, considering the anamnesis, the eating disorder specific and general psychopathology, the organic and psychiatric comorbidity, the emotional eating as a trigger factor for binge eating, and the quality of life. Design: cross-sectional survey.Subjects: Four hundred thirty eight overweight subjects seeking weight loss treatment have been enrolled in the study. Measurements: Subjects have been evaluated by means of a clinical interview (SCID I) and different self-reported questionnaires (Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, Binge Eating Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Spielberg's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Symptom Checklist 90, Emotional Eating Scale, and Obesity Related Well-Being questionnaire). Results: One hundred and five subjects (24% of the sample) fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria of lifetime BED, 146 (33.3%) fulfilled the criteria of lifetime subthreshold BED, and 187 (42.7%) subjects were diagnosed overweight non-BED. No correlations between the binges frequencies and the overweight levels were found. All the three groups showed high psychiatric comorbidities, and the three groups significantly differed in terms of emotional eating, which was positively correlated to the binge eating frequencies. Conclusions: Threshold and subthreshold BED deserve a careful psychopathological investigation and emotional eating seems to play a key role as trigger factor for binge eating. Obesity is associated with a high psychiatric comorbidity and a low quality of life, independently from the specific and general eating disorder psychopathology
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