1,228 research outputs found

    Who Needs Microtubules? Myogenic Reorganization of MTOC, Golgi Complex and ER Exit Sites Persists Despite Lack of Normal Microtubule Tracks

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    A wave of structural reorganization involving centrosomes, microtubules, Golgi complex and ER exit sites takes place early during skeletal muscle differentiation and completely remodels the secretory pathway. The mechanism of these changes and their functional implications are still poorly understood, in large part because all changes occur seemingly simultaneously. In an effort to uncouple the reorganizations, we have used taxol, nocodazole, and the specific GSK3-β inhibitor DW12, to disrupt the dynamic microtubule network of differentiating cultures of the mouse skeletal muscle cell line C2. Despite strong effects on microtubules, cell shape and cell fusion, none of the treatments prevented early differentiation. Redistribution of centrosomal proteins, conditional on differentiation, was in fact increased by taxol and nocodazole and normal in DW12. Redistributions of Golgi complex and ER exit sites were incomplete but remained tightly linked under all circumstances, and conditional on centrosomal reorganization. We were therefore able to uncouple microtubule reorganization from the other events and to determine that centrosomal proteins lead the reorganization hierarchy. In addition, we have gained new insight into structural and functional aspects of the reorganization of microtubule nucleation during myogenesis

    Nicotine up-regulates α4β2 nicotinic receptors and ER exit sites via stoichiometry-dependent chaperoning

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    The up-regulation of α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) by chronic nicotine is a cell-delimited process and may be necessary and sufficient for the initial events of nicotine dependence. Clinical literature documents an inverse relationship between a person’s history of tobacco use and his or her susceptibility to Parkinson’s disease; this may also result from up-regulation. This study visualizes and quantifies the subcellular mechanisms involved in nicotine-induced nAChR up-regulation by using transfected fluorescent protein (FP)-tagged α4 nAChR subunits and an FP-tagged Sec24D endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit site marker. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy shows that nicotine (0.1 µM for 48 h) up-regulates α4β2 nAChRs at the plasma membrane (PM), despite increasing the fraction of α4β2 nAChRs that remain in near-PM ER. Pixel-resolved normalized Förster resonance energy transfer microscopy between α4-FP subunits shows that nicotine stabilizes the (α4)2(β2)3 stoichiometry before the nAChRs reach the trans-Golgi apparatus. Nicotine also induces the formation of additional ER exit sites (ERES). To aid in the mechanistic analysis of these phenomena, we generated a β2enhanced-ER-export mutant subunit that mimics two regions of the β4 subunit sequence: the presence of an ER export motif and the absence of an ER retention/retrieval motif. The α4β2enhanced-ER-export nAChR resembles nicotine-exposed nAChRs with regard to stoichiometry, intracellular mobility, ERES enhancement, and PM localization. Nicotine produces only small additional PM up-regulation of α4β2enhanced-ER-export receptors. The experimental data are simulated with a model incorporating two mechanisms: (1) nicotine acts as a stabilizing pharmacological chaperone for nascent α4β2 nAChRs in the ER, eventually increasing PM receptors despite a bottleneck(s) in ER export; and (2) removal of the bottleneck (e.g., by expression of the β2enhanced-ER-export subunit) is sufficient to increase PM nAChR numbers, even without nicotine. The data also suggest that pharmacological chaperoning of nAChRs by nicotine can alter the physiology of ER processes

    Endoplasmic Reticulum Export of GPI-Anchored Proteins

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    Protein export from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an essential process in all eukaryotes driven by the cytosolic coat complex COPII, which forms vesicles at ER exit sites for transport of correctly assembled secretory cargo to the Golgi apparatus. The COPII machinery must adapt to the existing wide variety of different types of cargo proteins and to different cellular needs for cargo secretion. The study of the ER export of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins (GPI-APs), a special glycolipid-linked class of cell surface proteins, is contributing to address these key issues. Due to their special biophysical properties, GPI-APs use a specialized COPII machinery to be exported from the ER and their processing and maturation has been recently shown to actively regulate COPII function. In this review, we discuss the regulatory mechanisms by which GPI-APs are assembled and selectively exported from the ER.Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad de España (MINECO)-BFU2017-89700-

    Loss of a Clueless-dGRASP complex results in ER stress and blocks Integrin exit from the perinuclear endoplasmic reticulum in Drosophila larval muscle

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    Citation: Wang, Z. H., Rabouille, C., & Geisbrecht, E. R. (2015). Loss of a Clueless-dGRASP complex results in ER stress and blocks Integrin exit from the perinuclear endoplasmic reticulum in Drosophila larval muscle. Biology Open, 4(5), 636-648. doi:10.1242/bio.201511551Drosophila Clueless (Clu) and its conserved orthologs are known for their role in the prevention of mitochondrial clustering. Here, we uncover a new role for Clu in the delivery of integrin subunits in muscle tissue. In clu mutants, alpha PS2 integrin, but not beta PS integrin, abnormally accumulates in a perinuclear endoplasmic reticulum (ER) subdomain, a site that mirrors the endogenous localization of Clu. Loss of components essential for mitochondrial distribution do not phenocopy the clu mutant alpha PS2 phenotype. Conversely, RNAi knockdown of the Drosophila Golgi reassembly and stacking protein GRASP55/65 (dGRASP) recapitulates clu defects, including the abnormal accumulation of alpha PS2 and larval locomotor activity. Both Clu and dGRASP proteins physically interact and loss of Clu displaces dGRASP from ER exit sites, suggesting that Clu cooperates with dGRASP for the exit of alpha PS2 from a perinuclear subdomain in the ER. We also found that Clu and dGRASP loss of function leads to ER stress and that the stability of the ER exit site protein Sec16 is severely compromised in the clu mutants, thus explaining the ER accumulation of alpha PS2. Remarkably, exposure of clu RNAi larvae to chemical chaperones restores both alpha PS2 delivery and functional ER exit sites. We propose that Clu together with dGRASP prevents ER stress and therefore maintains Sec16 stability essential for the functional organization of perinuclear early secretory pathway. This, in turn, is essential for integrin subunit alpha PS2 ER exit in Drosophila larval myofibers

    Sec16 Defines Endoplasmic Reticulum Exit Sites and is Required for Secretory Cargo Export in Mammalian Cells

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    The selective export of proteins and lipids from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is mediated by the coat protein complex II (COPII) that assembles onto the ER membrane. In higher eukaryotes, COPII proteins assemble at discrete sites on the membrane known as ER exit sites (ERES). Here, we identify Sec16 as the protein that defines ERES in mammalian cells. Sec16 localizes to ERES independent of Sec23/24 and Sec13/31. Overexpression, and to a lesser extent, small interfering RNA depletion of Sec16, both inhibit ER-to-Golgi transport suggesting that Sec16 is required in stoichiometric amounts. Sar1 activity is required to maintain the localization of Sec16 at discrete locations on the ER membrane, probably through preventing its dissociation. Our data suggest that Sar1-GTP-dependent assembly of Sec16 on the ER membrane forms an organized scaffold defining an ERES

    Sec16 alternative splicing dynamically controls COPII transport efficiency

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    The transport of secretory proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi depends on COPII-coated vesicles. While the basic principles of the COPII machinery have been identified, it remains largely unknown how COPII transport is regulated to accommodate tissue- or activation-specific differences in cargo load and identity. Here we show that activation-induced alternative splicing of Sec16 controls adaptation of COPII transport to increased secretory cargo upon T-cell activation. Using splice-site blocking morpholinos and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering, we show that the number of ER exit sites, COPII dynamics and transport efficiency depend on Sec16 alternative splicing. As the mechanistic basis, we suggest the C-terminal Sec16 domain to be a splicing-controlled protein interaction platform, with individual isoforms showing differential abilities to recruit COPII components. Our work connects the COPII pathway with alternative splicing, adding a new regulatory layer to protein secretion and its adaptation to changing cellular environments

    TFG Promotes Organization of Transitional ER and Efficient Collagen Secretion

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    Collagen is the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom. It is of fundamental importance during development for cell differentiation and tissue morphogenesis as well as in pathological processes such as fibrosis and cancer cell migration. However, our understanding of the mechanisms of procollagen secretion remains limited. Here, we show that TFG organizes transitional ER (tER) and ER exit sites (ERESs) into larger structures. Depletion of TFG results in dispersion of tER elements that remain associated with individual ER-Golgi intermediate compartments (ERGICs) as largely functional ERESs. We show that TFG is not required for the transport and packaging of small soluble cargoes but is necessary for the export of procollagen from the ER. Our work therefore suggests a key relationship between the structure and function of ERESs and a central role for TFG in optimizing COPII assembly for procollagen export.Medical Research Council UK/MR/J000604/1Medical Research Council UK/MR/K018019/1Medical Research Council UK/MR/G080184
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