180,367 research outputs found

    Estrogens promote misfolded proinsulin degradation to protect insulin production and delay diabetes

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    Summary: Conjugated estrogens (CE) delay the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in postmenopausal women, but the mechanism is unclear. In T2D, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) fails to promote proinsulin folding and, in failing to do so, promotes ER stress and β cell dysfunction. We show that CE prevent insulin-deficient diabetes in male and in female Akita mice using a model of misfolded proinsulin. CE stabilize the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) system and promote misfolded proinsulin proteasomal degradation. This involves activation of nuclear and membrane estrogen receptor-α (ERα), promoting transcriptional repression and proteasomal degradation of the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and ERAD degrader, UBC6e. The selective ERα modulator bazedoxifene mimics CE protection of β cells in females but not in males. : Estrogens prevent diabetes in women, but the mechanism is poorly understood. Xu et al. report that estrogens activate the endoplasmic-reticulum-associated protein degradation pathway, which promotes misfolded proinsulin degradation, suppresses endoplasmic reticulum stress, and protects insulin secretion in mice and in human pancreatic β cells. Keywords: estrogens, beta cell, islet, endoplasmic reticulum stress, proinsulin misfolding, diabetes, bazedoxifene, sex dimorphism, ERAD, SER

    Uterine Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Its Unfolded Protein Response May Regulate Caspase 3 Activation in the Pregnant Mouse Uterus

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    We have previously proposed that uterine caspase-3 may modulate uterine contractility in a gestationally regulated fashion. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanism by which uterine caspase-3 is activated and consequently controlled in the pregnant uterus across gestation. Utilizing the mouse uterus as our gestational model we examined the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathways and the endoplasmic reticulum stress response as potential activators of uterine caspase-3 at the transcriptional and translational level. Our study revealed robust activation of the uterine myocyte endoplasmic reticulum stress response and its adaptive unfolded protein response during pregnancy coinciding respectively with increased uterine caspase-3 activity and its withdrawal to term. In contrast the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathways remained inactive across gestation. We speculate that physiological stimuli experienced by the pregnant uterus likely potentiates the uterine myocyte endoplasmic reticulum stress response resulting in elevated caspase-3 activation, which is isolated to the pregnant mouse myometrium. However as term approaches, activation of an elevated adaptive unfolded protein response acts to limit the endoplasmic reticulum stress response inhibiting caspase-3 resulting in its decline towards term. We speculate that these events have the capacity to regulate gestational length in a caspase-3 dependent manne

    Ricin B chain targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum of tobacco protoplasts is degraded by a CDC48- and vacuole-independent mechanism

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    The B chain of ricin was expressed and delivered to the endoplasmic reticulum of tobacco protoplasts where it disappeared with time in a manner consistent with degradation. This turnover did not occur in the vacuoles or upon secretion. Indeed, several lines of evidence indicate that, in contrast to the turnover of endoplasmic reticulum-targeted ricin A chain in the cytosol, the bulk of expressed ricin B chain was degraded in the secretory pathway

    Cell biology, SevERing mitochondria

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    The endoplasmic reticulum is an active participant in the division of another organelle, the mitochondrion

    Retrograde trafficking of Argonaute 2 acts as a rate-limiting step for de novo miRNP formation on endoplasmic reticulum–attached polysomes in mammalian cells

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    microRNAs are short regulatory RNAs in metazoan cells. Regulation of miRNA activity and abundance is evident in human cells where availability of target messages can influence miRNA biogenesis by augmenting the Dicer1-dependent processing of precursors to mature microRNAs. Requirement of subcellular compartmentalization of Ago2, the key component of miRNA repression machineries, for the controlled biogenesis of miRNPs is reported here. The process predominantly happens on the polysomes attached with the endoplasmic reticulum for which the subcellular Ago2 trafficking is found to be essential. Mitochondrial tethering of endoplasmic reticulum and its interaction with endosomes controls Ago2 availability. In cells with depolarized mitochondria, miRNA biogenesis gets impaired, which results in lowering of de novo–formed mature miRNA levels and accumulation of miRNA-free Ago2 on endosomes that fails to interact with Dicer1 and to traffic back to endoplasmic reticulum for de novo miRNA loading. Thus, mitochondria by sensing the cellular context regulates Ago2 trafficking at the subcellular level, which acts as a rate-limiting step in miRNA biogenesis process in mammalian cells

    Aggregation and retention of human urokinase type plasminogen activator in the yeast endoplasmic reticulum

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    BACKGROUND: Secretion of recombinant proteins in yeast can be affected by their improper folding in the endoplasmic reticulum and subsequent elimination of the misfolded molecules via the endoplasmic reticulum associated protein degradation pathway. Recombinant proteins can also be degraded by the vacuolar protease complex. Human urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA) is poorly secreted by yeast but the mechanisms interfering with its secretion are largely unknown. RESULTS: We show that in Hansenula polymorpha overexpression worsens uPA secretion and stimulates its intracellular aggregation. The absence of the Golgi modifications in accumulated uPA suggests that aggregation occurs within the endoplasmic reticulum. Deletion analysis has shown that the N-terminal domains were responsible for poor uPA secretion and propensity to aggregate. Mutation abolishing N-glycosylation decreased the efficiency of uPA secretion and increased its aggregation degree. Retention of uPA in the endoplasmic reticulum stimulates its aggregation. CONCLUSIONS: The data obtained demonstrate that defect of uPA secretion in yeast is related to its retention in the endoplasmic reticulum. Accumulation of uPA within the endoplasmic reticulum disturbs its proper folding and leads to formation of high molecular weight aggregates

    Membrane contact sites - an interesting species, an interesting mix

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    In this issue of EMBO reports, Loewen and colleagues reveal a role for plasma membrane–endoplasmic reticulum contact sites in regulating phosphatidylcholine synthesis in budding yeast

    Cytosolic redox components regulate protein homeostasis via additional localisation in the mitochondrial intermembrane space

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    Oxidative protein folding is confined to the bacterial periplasm, endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Maintaining a redox balance requires the presence of reductive pathways. The major thiol-reducing pathways engage the thioredoxin and the glutaredoxin systems which are involved in removal of oxidants, protein proofreading and folding. Alterations in redox balance likely affect the flux of these redox pathways and are related to ageing and diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders and cancer. Here, we first review the well-studied oxidative and reductive processes in the bacterial periplasm and the endoplasmic reticulum, and then discuss the less understood process in the mitochondrial intermembrane space, highlighting its importance for the proper function of the cell

    Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Induces Endoplasmic-Reticulum-Stress Response in Human Colorectal Tumor Cells

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    Tumor cells are stressed by unfavorable environmental conditions like hypoxia or starvation. Driven by the resulting cellular stress tumor cells undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Additionally, cellular stress is accompanied by endoplasmic reticulum-stress which induces an unfolded protein response. It is unknown if epithelial-mesenchymal transition and endoplasmic reticulum-stress are occurring as independent parallel events or if an interrelationship exists between both of them. Here, we show that in colorectal cancer cells endoplasmic reticulum-stress depends on the induction of ZEB-1, which is a main factor of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In the absence of ZEB-1 colorectal cancer cells cannot mount endoplasmic reticulum-stress as a reaction on cellular stress situations like hypoxia or starvation. Thus, our data suggest that there is a hierarchy in the development of cellular stress which starts with the presence of environmental stress that induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition which allows finally endoplasmic reticulum-stress. This finding highlights the central role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition during the process of tumorigenesis as epithelial-mesenchymal transition is also associated with chemoresistance and cancer stemness. Consequently, endoplasmic reticulum-stress might be a well suited target for chemotherapy of colorectal cancers