474,230 research outputs found

    TEACHING SPEAKING: SIMULATING REAL LIFE SITUATIONS THROUGH ROLE-PLAY ACTIVITIES

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    Speaking skill is often considered as the most important part of ESL teaching. People may often form judgments about our language competence from our speaking rather than from any of the other skills. It is one of the main skills and means of communication that a student of the philological profile must acquire in the process of mastering FL. The present study analyses factors that caurse problems in speaking and give a solution for them. Moreover, the author recommends role-play activities based on the communicative method and learner-centered approaches as an effective means in the English language teaching, gives examples of exercises and the variety of effective communicative methods that can be used indeveloping students’ speaking. The author describes the importance of using role-play activities for students to increase theirs peaking skills at Samarkand State Institute of Foreign Languages. As some researches have analyzed, using role-play activities is very useful and has a positive effect, moreover it has a goodimpact on students’ creativity to explore the language. The role-play activities can improve speaking skills and are considered an essential activity for developing students speaking skills at Samarkand institute

    COGNITIVE ASPECT OF THE UZBEK IDIOMATIC WORDS AND THEIR EQUIVALENTS IN ENGLISH

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    The progressing of the Uzbek linguistics and learning approaches to language, especially, problems of cognitive linguistics have been analyzed in the article. The results show that cognitive approach and methods of cognitive language materials carried out legislation of lexical units of the Uzbek language, as the materials of the Uzbek language indicate the reasons of conceptual connection of linguistic units, including the semantic factor of cognitive linguistic connection were illuminated in the article. The main characteristics of idiomatic units were based on conceptual connection. Some idiomatic words of the Uzbek language were translated into English with their equivalents. A variety of Uzbek language materials is based on the perception of reality, knowledge, opportunities linguistic memory of people. The article is dedicated to the research of ways of idiomaticity in the Uzbek word formation. It describes various causes of emergence of idiomaticity in compound words. The aim of the research work is the study of the cognitive aspect of idiomatic words of the Uzbek language. The role of cognitive mechanisms in word formation and verbalization of language units is considered as one of the topical problems of linguistics. The author of the article analyzes the cognitive bases of the formation of the idiomatic words in the Uzbek language. Conceptual metonymy, conceptual metaphor and metaphtonymy were demonstrated as basic cognitive mechanisms in the formation of idiomatic words. Moreover, the article covers the problems of engendering of idiomatic words as a result of human being’s understanding of the world, their reflection in human being\u27s cognition and the process of reflection of cognitive mechanisms in the formation of the concept

    Data-driven subspace-based model predictive control

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    The desire to develop control systems that can be rapidly deployed has resulted in the formulation of algorithms that combine system identification with the development of control technique resulting in a single-step implementation. One such algorithm is Subspace Model Predictive Control (SMPC), which is a combination of results from subspace methods in system identification and model predictive control. In this thesis, novel algorithms of SMPC are investigated and developed. More specifically, a data filtering procedure is proposed in the computation of subspace predictor coefficients, resulting in the suppression of non-stationary disturbance in the identification data and incorporation of integrator in the predictive control law. Computational advantages of parameterization of control input trajectory using Laguerre functions are demonstrated and extended to Multi-input and Multi-output (MIMO) systems. By manipulating the unique structure of subspace data matrices, an efficient recursive algorithm for the updating of subspace predictor coefficients is investigated. This efficient algorithm is then extended to SMPC for time-varying systems, with the proposal of a novel recursive control law. The advantage of this implementation is that recursive updating is only performed when there is plant-predictor mismatch, thus input and output signals need not be persistently exciting at all times. Consequently, unnecessary fluctuations of signals are avoided, resulting in a smoother steady-state response. Finally, an implementation of a variable forgetting factor was introduced in order to facilitate faster convergence. These innovative approaches result in more efficient and reliable SMPC algorithms, thus making this design methodology a promising choice for control system design and implementation. Experimental results obtained from Permanent Magnetic Synchronous Machine and DC motor are used to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approaches

    Doctor of Philosophy

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    dissertationThis dissertation is comprised of three articles that seek to explore sense of community (SOC) within adult recreational sports leagues. Although a body of literature describes SOC within this setting, little is understood about specific predictors or outcomes of SOC. This dissertation addresses that gap by examining achievement goal orientations as potential predictors, and testing both bridging and bonding social capital as an outcome related to SOC in sport. In addition, article two serves as a bridge between articles one and three through qualitative exploration of the meaning that participant's ascribe to their experiences in a recreational tennis league. Article one assesses the relation of achievement goal orientations, at both the individual and team levels, to SOC within an adult recreational flag football league. Results indicate a negative association between individual ego orientation and SOC, and a positive association between team task orientation and SOC. Further, the negative relationship of individual ego-orientation is moderated by aggregate team task orientation. In other words, the negative relation of individual ego orientation is mitigated when on a team with a high task orientation. In addition to furthering understanding of the importance of group and individual factors, this article also supports management techniques that seek to encourage task-involvement. The second article is a qualitative exploration of participants' experiences in a recreational tennis league. Although SOC was used as a sensitizing concept, this research asked broad questions about the experience in order to ascertain what was important to participants regarding their involvement. Findings suggest that SOC is an important part of the experience. Further, the findings point towards the theory of Sense of Community in Sport (SCS) as developed by Warner and colleagues as a useful framework in which to explore SOC in recreational tennis leagues. Based on the findings of article two, the purpose of article three was to test the relation of SOC, through the framework of SCS, to the potential outcomes of bonding and bridging social capital. In addition, article three examines the moderating influences of social identity, psychological involvement, and behavioral involvement on the relation between SOC and social capital. Results of article three support significant associations between SOC and bonding social capital depending on levels of social identity, psychological involvement, and behavioral involvement. Specifically high SOC relates positively to high bonding social capital when psychological involvement is average or above average. Significant associations with bridging social capital were not supported. These results also provide practical recommendations for managers seeking to enhance SOC and social capital

    Doctor of Philosophy

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    dissertationTransnational adoption is a common practice in the United States, with American families adopting hundreds of thousands of children born in other countries over the last 50 years. Most of these adoptions represent transcultural and transracial adoptions, and both families and adoptees frequently engage in cultural and identity exploration activities, such as adoption camps, birth country travel, education classes, holiday celebrations, promoting friendships with other adoptees, and birth country language learning. This dissertation sought to explore the impact that these different exploration strategies had on ethnic identity resolution of adoptees. Following a Multiple Article Path (MAP) format, this dissertation utilized data from three separate studies to explore this question. Chapter 2 incorporated mixed methods research with 22 adopted Chinese teens attending an adoption camp. Chapter 3 was a qualitative study with 10 adult adoptees from a variety of different birth countries exploring their perspectives on different identity exploration activities. Chapter 4 was a quantitative study of adult adoptees, looking for correlations between a resolved sense of ethnic identity and birth country travel, language learning, and friendship with other adoptees. Key findings from these studies include (a) adoptees value adoption camp, and that friendships with other adoptees are important; (b) travel to one's birth country is important to many adoptees, and the meaning and value of travel can vary over time; and (c) birth country language learning is positively correlated with resolved ethnic identity

    Doctor of Philosophy

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    dissertationModern mining systems frequently use drill and blast techniques for rock excavation. Rock blasting not only fragments rock but also creates overbreak in the rock surrounding the excavation. The unwanted damage often results in higher mining costs and severe safety concerns. To reduce unwanted damage, the ability to predict damage caused by rock blasting is essential. A shock wave based, engineer-friendly technique is developed in this dissertation. The design procedure is based on charts, graphs, and a computer program. The dissertation deals with three major aspects of developing a damage prediction model, namely, theoretical development, experimental research, and validation of the model using laboratory and field results. The theoretical development includes calculation of stress and response of rock for fully-coupled and decoupled blasting using the theory of shock wave transfer. This new procedure will be referred to as SWT. The objective is to use the properties of explosives and the properties of rock materials to develop a reasonable algorithm for predicting the extent of the damage zone caused by rock blasting. To validate the SWT model, three approaches are presented: (1) currently available experimental data in the literature; (2) large-scale laboratory experiments; and results of a field application in an underground mine. Based on Esen's (2003) laboratory experiments and large-scale laboratory experiments conducted as part of this dissertation, the SWT model successfully estimates the extent of the crush zone. Based on the work presented by Olsson (Olsson 1993) SWT provides reasonable estimates for the crack zone. Based on the comparison with other approaches, the SWT model is close to the Modified Ash (Energy-based), Modified Ash (Pressure-based), Holmberg Explosive Factor, and Sher Quasi-Static models. However, the crack zone did not conform to that observed in large scale laboratory models. The likely reason for this is the relatively small size of the laboratory models and lack of complete confinement. Application of this new method under field conditions, however, confirms the usefulness of SWT for practical blast design. Several new insights and useful information developed as a result of this research are valuable for the caution blast design at surface and underground mining

    Doctor of Philosophy

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    dissertationDevelopment of multicellular organisms requires precise coordination of gene expression, regulated by alterations in genomic accessibility and chromatin structure. Changes in chromatin architecture also mediate the transition from plasticity to cell fate commitment. This work describes a candidate RNAi screen in C.elegans designed to identify factors functioning in transcriptional silencing, based on enhancement/suppression of phenotypes associated with mutants in three major transcriptional silencing pathways: mes-3/Polycomb, met-2/SET-DB1, and hpl-1; hpl- 2/HP1. Strikingly, all known members of the Mes/Polycomb pathway of transcriptional repression, including members of PRC2 (mes-2/mes-3/mes-6), mes-4, and set-2 strongly suppress the hpl-1; hpl-2 larval arrest phenotype. A number of additional factors also strongly suppressed hpl-1; hpl-2 arrest, including members of the COMPASS/MLL complex (H3K4me), members of the NuA4 HAT complex, members of SWR1 nucleosome remodeling complex (incorporation of H2A.Z), O-GlcNAc transferase (catalyzes a type of posttranslational modification), a novel factor (T19B4.5), and two proteins involved in DNA repair. Based on the hypothesis that the strong hpl-1; hpl-2 suppression signature indicates association with the Mes pathway, these genes were tested in a number of secondary analyses related to Mes function, including maternal effect sterility, germline iv morphology, H3K27 methylation, interaction in the SynMuv pathway of vulval specification, suppression of mep-1/NuRD larval lethality, and desilencing of tandem arrays in the germline. Phenotypes associated with these assays suggest that hpl-1; hpl-2 suppressors can be divided into two classes based on similarity to either MES-4 or PRC2 phenotypes. Data suggest that the activating complex(es) NuA4/SWR1 interact with MES-4, and may contribute to repression of X linked gene expression. Our analyses also indicate that the COMPASS complex likely functions in the Mes/PcG pathway in two or more forms, one of which is independent of SET-2. Phenotypes associated with SET-2- independent COMPASS complex correlate well with mes-4, while SET-2 may interact more closely with MES/PRC2. This work also demonstrates a novel phenotype associated with the coiled-coil protein T19B4.5. Loss of this factor induces upregulation of let-858::GFP transgenic constructs in the soma, coupled with reduced expression in the germ line. These data suggest that T19B4.5 may modulate both the SynMuv and Mes pathways in a context dependent manner

    Doctor of Philosophy

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    dissertationNew catalytic approaches to carbocycles and heterocycles are disclosed. The longstanding challenge of using ketenes in transition-metal catalyzed cycloaddition is successfully addressed by using Ni-phosphine complexes. These complexes catalyzed the cycloaddition of various ketenes and diynes. In general, 2,4-cyclohexadienones were formed instead of products arising from decarbonylation of the ketenes. Efforts to develop the asymmetric version of this cycloaddition chemistry are also discussed. The inability of Ni-phosphine complexes to promote the oxidative coupling of alkyne and nitrile was successfully addressed using the catalytic combination of Ni(cod) 2 and Xantphos. This catalyst system was used to couple a variety of diynes and unactivated nitriles to form pyridines. The reaction proceeds under ambient conditions to provide excellent yields of the products. Comparison of this catalyst with the other state-of-the-art catalysts is also provided. An easy and expeditious route to substituted piperidines is also described. A Niphosphine complex was used as catalyst for [4 + 2] cycloaddition of 3-azetidinone and alkynes. This unique reaction has broad substrate scope and affords piperidines in excellent yields and excellent regioselectivity. In the reaction of an enantiopure azetidinone, complete retention of stereochemistry was observed. 3-Azetidinone and a variety of diynes also undergo a cycloaddition reaction catalyzed by Ni/IPr to give [5-8] fused dihydroazocine compounds. The reaction involves a challenging C(sp2 )-C(sp3) bond cleavage step, yet, surprisingly, proceeds at low temperature. Interestingly, in the case of 2,7-diynes, a spirocyclic pyran product was obtained instead of a [6 -8] fused dihydroazocine. This strategy was also extended to oxetanone to access oxocines. A novel mode of reactivity of tropone is disclosed. A variety of diynes were efficiently coupled with tropone using a nickel catalyst to afford tricyclic products. Unsymmetrical diynes were successfully coupled to yield cycloadducts with high regioselectivity. Additionally, biaryls and triaryl frameworks can be easily accessed in a single, chemical operation in good yields and with excellent regiocontrol
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