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    Dissonance

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    High altitude climbers as ethnomethodologists making sense of cognitive dissonance: ethnographic insights from an attempt to scale Mt Everest

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    This ethnographic study examined how a group of high altitude climbers (N = 6)drew on ethnomethodological principles (the documentary method of interpretation, reflexivity, indexicality, and membership) to interpret their experiences of cognitive dissonance during an attempt to scale Mt. Everest. Data were collected via participant observation, interviews, and a field diary. Each data source was subjected to a content mode of analysis. Results revealed how cognitive dissonance reduction is accomplished from within the interaction between a pattern of self-justification and self-inconsistencies; how the reflexive nature of cognitive dissonance is experienced; how specific features of the setting are inextricably linked to the cognitive dissonance experience; and how climbers draw upon a shared stock of knowledge in their experiences with cognitive dissonance

    Rationalization and Cognitive Dissonance: Do Choices Affect or Reflect Preferences?

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    Cognitive dissonance is one of the most influential theories in psychology, and its oldest experiential realization is choice-induced dissonance. In contrast to the economic approach of assuming a person's choices reveal their preferences, psychologists have claimed since 1956 that people alter their preferences to rationalize past choices by devaluing rejected alternatives and upgrading chosen ones. Here, I show that every study which has tested this preference-spreading effect has overlooked the potential that choices may reflect individual preferences. Specifically, these studies have implicitly assumed that subject's preferences can be measured perfectly, i.e., with infinite precision. Absent this, their methods, even with control groups, will mistakenly identify cognitive dissonance when there is none. Correctly interpreted, several prominent studies actually reject the presence of choice-induced dissonance. This suggests that mere choice may not always induce rationalization, a reversal that may significantly change the way we think about cognitive dissonance as a whole.Cognitive dissonance, Revealed preference

    Integrity: Its Causes and Cures

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    Integrity is a good thing, isn\u27t it? In ordinary parlance, we sometimes use it as a near synonym for honesty, but the word means much more than honesty alone. It means wholeness or unity of person, an inner consistency between deed and principle. Integrity shares etymology with other unity-words-integer, integral, integrate, integration. All derive from the Latin integrare, to make whole. And the person of integrity is the person whose conduct and principles operate in happy harmony. Our psyches always seek that happy harmony. When our conduct and principles clash with each other, the result, social psychology teaches us, is cognitive dissonance. And dissonance theory hypothesizes that one of our fundamental psychic mechanisms is the drive to reduce dissonance

    Drones and Cognitive Dissonance

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    There’s something about drones that makes sane people crazy. Is it those lean, futurist profiles? The activities drone technologies enable? Or perhaps it’s just the word itself–drone–a mindless, unpleasant, dissonant thrum. Whatever the cause, drones seem to produce an unusual kind of cognitive dissonance in many people. Some demonize drones, denouncing them for causing civilian deaths or enabling long-distance killing, even as they ignore the fact that the same (or worse) could be said of many other weapons delivery systems. Others glorify them as a low-cost way to “take out terrorists,” despite the strategic vacuum in which most drone strikes occur. Still others insist that US drone policy is just “business as usual,” despite the fact that these attacks may undermine US foreign policy goals while creating an array of new problems. It is worth taking a closer look at what is and is not new and noteworthy about drone technologies and the activities they enable. Ultimately, “drones” as such present few new issues—but the manner in which the US has been using them raises grave questions about their strategic efficacy and unintended consequences. In fact, the legal theories used to justify many US drone strikes risk dangerously hollowing out the rule of law itself

    A Dynamic Model of Decision-making Under Cognitive Dissonance and Modularity of Mind

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    This paper attempts to explain how and why seemingly contradictory beliefs co-exist in an optimizing individual''s mind in the long run. We set up a dynamic model of decision-making inwhich the individual.s mind is composed of a coordinating principal and two conflicting agents. We take into account the cognitive dissonance experienced due to the conflict between the agents. Each agent (or self ) is specialized in perceiving a particular type of signal, which describes the world. Cognitive dissonance levels in our model are not constant. Instead, the individual''s split-selves are open to habituation, which can lead to a reduction in cognitive dissonance. We prove the existence of an optimal strategy with a threshold structure. Our results show that the co-existence of conflicting beliefs might be an equilibrium phenomenon even in an optimizing mind. Suggestions that may avoid the tension that occurs due to cognitive dissonance are made.microeconomics ;

    Faking it: a conceptual discussion on emotional labor, emotional dissonance and emotional intelligence

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    Emotional labor is a construct that is intertwined with the hospitality industry as employees are required to accommodate certain behavior or emotion to conform with the idea of providing excellent and sincere service to guests or customers. The concept of emotional labor will be further investigated and so does the implication of its utilization. In mentioning emotional labor, one would relate it with emotional dissonance as emotional labor has two forms which are surface acting and deep acting. The internal conflict between the inner feeling and displayed emotion is what termed emotional dissonance. The hospitality industry requires their employees to present their selves in a certain way as prescribed by each establishment. Thus, there are bound to be dissonances in the emotions of the employees. Previous literature also supports the idea of emotional intelligence playing a role in emotional labor with emotional labor having a positive relationship with emotional labor. Therefore, this paper is written with the idea of discussing conceptually the two variables and to explore Emotional Labor and Dissonance in detail; with elaboration of how emotional intelligence relates to them

    Flexibility, Dissonance and the conscious consumer

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    This paper considers the ethical purchasing of what are described as conscious consumers. Conscious consumers present a complex mix of behaviors; while seeking ethical alternatives, other social and economic forces impact on their behavior such that positive ethical choices are not always made. We identify two areas of theory relevant to the conceptualization of such consumers, flexibility and dissonance theory. A study of nine participants identified as conscious consumers was undertaken. As anticipated the participants revealed a range of often contradictory behaviors regarding their ethical purchases. The relevance of flexibility and dissonance theory to their behavior is discussed
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