109,452 research outputs found

    A comparison of HPV DNA testing and liquid based cytology over three rounds of primary cervical screening: extended follow up in the ARTISTIC trial.

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    BACKGROUND: The additional sensitivity of HPV testing compared with cytology could permit extended cervical screening intervals. We wished to determine, through a further (third) round of screening in the ARTISTIC trial, the protection provided by a negative baseline HPV screen compared with that of cytology over a 6 year period. METHODS: Cumulative rates of CIN2 or worse (CIN2+) and CIN3 or worse (CIN3+) were correlated with baseline HPV status and cytology. HPV was detected using the Hybrid Capture 2 (Qiagen) assay for high risk types and genotyped using the Linear Array (Roche) and Papillocheck (Greiner) assays. LBC was performed using ThinPrep (Hologic). FINDINGS: Round 3 included 8,873 women of whom 6,337 had been screened in both rounds 1 and 2 and 2,536 had not been screened since round 1. The median duration of follow-up was 72.7 months. The cumulative rate of CIN2+ over three rounds was 3.88% (95%CI 3.59%, 4.17%) overall; 2.39% in round 1, 0.78% in round 2 and 0.74% in round 3. Cumulative rates by baseline status were 20.53% (95%CI 19.04%, 22.08%) for abnormal cytology, 20.12% (95%CI 18.68%, 21.61%) for HPV detection, 1.41% (95%CI 1.19%, 1.65%) for negative cytology and 0.87% (95%CI 0.70%, 1.06%) for a negative HPV test. In HPV negative women aged over 50 the cumulative rate was 0.16% (95%CI 0.07%, 0.34%). Women who were HPV positive/cytology negative at entry had a cumulative CIN2+ rate of 7.73% (95%CI 6.29%, 9.36%) over 6 years, twice the overall rate. INTERPRETATION: A negative HPV test was significantly more protective than normal cytology over three rounds. The findings of this extension of ARTISTIC suggest that the screening interval could be extended to 6 years if HPV testing replaced cytology as the primary screening test

    Evaluation of Xpert® MTB/RIF and ustar easyNAT™ TB IAD for diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis of children in Tanzania : a prospective descriptive study

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    Fine needle aspiration biopsy has become a standard approach for diagnosis of peripheral tuberculous lymphadenitis. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF and Ustar EasyNAT TB IAD nucleic acid amplification assays, against acid-fast bacilli microscopy, cytology and mycobacterial culture for the diagnosis of TB lymphadenitis in children from a TB-endemic setting in Tanzania.; Children of 8 weeks to 16 years of age, suspected of having TB lymphadenitis, were recruited at a district hospital in Tanzania. Fine needle aspirates of lymph nodes were analysed using acid-fast bacilli microscopy, liquid TB culture, cytology, Xpert MTB/RIF and EasyNAT. Latent class analysis and comparison against a composite reference standard comprising "culture and/or cytology" was done, to assess the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF and EasyNAT for the diagnosis of TB lymphadenitis.; Seventy-nine children were recruited; 4 were excluded from analysis. Against a composite reference standard of culture and/or cytology, Xpert MTB/RIF and EasyNAT had a sensitivity and specificity of 58 % and 93 %; and 19 % and 100 % respectively. Relative to latent class definitions, cytology had a sensitivity of 100 % and specificity of 94.7 %.; Combining clinical assessment, cytology and Xpert MTB/RIF may allow for a rapid and accurate diagnosis of childhood TB lymphadenitis. Larger diagnostic evaluation studies are recommended to validate these findings and on Xpert MTB/RIF to assess its use as a solitary initial test for TB lymphadenitis in children

    Emperipolesis in a Case of Adult T Cell Lymphoblastic Lymphoma (Mediastinal type)-Detected at FNAC and Imprint Cytology

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    Emperipolesis is a condition in which viable hematopoetic cells are seen intact in the cytoplasm of host cell without damage. This phenomenon is seen in many physiologic and pathologic conditions, its presence in Rosai Dorfman disease (RDD) is characteristic of the disease. However emperipolesis is an uncommon finding in malignant lymphoma both Hodgkins and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, wherein it has been described in bone marrow aspirate and tissue culture. In contrast there are only two case reports of emperipolesis phenomenon described in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in tissue sections. We report a case of an adult T cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (mediastinal type) with features of emperipolesis demonstrated at fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and imprint cytology of cervical lymph nodes. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of emperipolesis in a case of adult T cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (mediastinal type)-detected at FNAC and imprint cytology

    Effect of Preanalytical Processing of ThinPrep Specimens on Detection of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus by the Aptima HPV Assay

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    Two important preanalytical protocols performed on liquid-based cytological specimens, namely, automated cytology processing and glacial acetic acid (GAA) treatment, may occur prior to the arrival of specimens in a molecular diagnostics laboratory. Ninety-two ThinPrep vials previously positive for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) via the Cervista HPV HR test were preselected and alternated with 92 previously negative ThinPrep vials. The specimen set was processed in a consecutive fashion by an automated cytology processor without fastidious decontamination precautions. Carryover potential was subsequently assessed by performance of the Aptima HPV assay on aliquots from reprocessed ThinPrep vials. All previously negative ThinPrep vials yielded a negative result following routine automated cytology processing, despite close proximity to known-positive ThinPrep vials. In separate experiments, aliquots from 236 ThinPrep vials were forwarded for tandem analysis with and without GAA treatment. Data from GAA- and mock-treated specimens generated by Aptima HPV were compared to correlate data generated by Cervista. A 99.2% concordance of Aptima HPV results from GAA-treated and mock-treated specimens was noted. This result differed from the concordance result derived from Cervista (91.5%; P \u3c 0.0002). Of the initially positive Cervista results, 21.9% reverted to negative following GAA treatment; the correlate value was 2.7% for Aptima HPV (P = 0.01). While deleterious effects of GAA treatment on genomic DNA were noted with Cervista (P = 0.0015), GAA treatment had no significant effects on Aptima HPV specimen signal/cutoff ratios or amplification of internal control RNA (P ≥ 0.07). The validity of an Aptima HPV result is independent of GAA treatment and routine automated cytology processing

    Frequency and significance of Ras, Tert promoter, and Braf mutations in cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules: A monocentric case series at a tertiary-level Endocrinology unit

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    PurposeThe management of thyroid nodules of indeterminate cytology is controversial. Our study aimed to establish the frequency and significance of H-,K-,N-RAS, TERT promoter, and BRAF gene mutations in thyroid nodes of indeterminate cytology and to assess their potential usefulness in clinical practice.MethodsH-,K-,N-RAS, TERT promoter and BRAF gene mutations were examined in a series of 199 consecutive nodes of indeterminate cytology referred for surgical excision.Results69/199 (35%) were malignant on histopathological review. RAS mutations were detected in 36/199 (18%), and 19/36 cases (53%) were malignant on histological diagnosis. TERT promoter mutations were detected in 7/199 (4%) nodules, which were all malignant lesions. BRAF mutations were detected in 15/199 (8%), and a BRAF K601E mutation was identified in 2 follicular adenomas and 1 noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features. Altogether, this panel was able to identify 48% of the malignant lesions, achieving a specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for malignancy of 85, 62, and 75%, respectively.ConclusionThe residual malignancy risk in mutation-negative nodes is 25%. These nodes still need to be resected, but mutation analysis could help to orient the appropriate surgical strategy

    The subthalamic nucleus : Part I: Development, cytology, topography and connections

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    This monograph on the subthalamic nucleus accentuates in Part I the gap between experimental animal and human information concerning subthalamic development, cytology, topography and connections. The light and electron microscopical cytology concerns the open nucleus concept and the neuronal types present in the STN. The cytochemistry encompasses: enzymes, NO, GRAP, calcium binding proteins, and receptors (dopamine, cannabinoid, piod, glutamate, GABA, serotonin, cholinergic, and calcium channels). The ontogeny of the subthalamic cell cord is reviewed. The topography concerns the rat, cat, baboon and human STN. The descriptions of the connections are also given from a historial point of view. Recent tracer studies on the rat nigro-subthalamic connection revealed contralateral projections

    Biliary brush cytology for the diagnosis of malignancy: a single center experience [Citološki razmazi brisa četkicom u dijagnostici malignih promjena bilijarnog stabla: naše iskustvo]

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    Differentiation between benign and malignant biliary strictures is critical to the provision of adequate treatment. Brush cytology during the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the most commonly used method for obtaining tissue confirmation of the nature of biliary strictures. It’s specificity is remarkably high but reported sensitivities for the diagnosis of malignancy are low. Aim of our study was to assess sensitivity and specificity of biliary brush cytology in our institution, to find out main causes of false negative diagnoses and to confirm impression that the team approach has impact on sensitivity. Gold standard for diagnosis was definitive surgical histology or adequate clinical follow up for minimum of six month. Direct smears made by cytotechnician at the endoscopy room, and stained according to Papanicolaou and May-Grünwald Giemsa (MGG) were examined for well-recognized features of malignancy on conventional smears as a part of diagnostic routine. Cytologic diagnoses were benign, atypical/reactive, suspicious for malignancy and malignant. Of 143 brushings with available definitive diagnosis 36 (25%) had malignant cytologic diagnosis and 91(63.6%) were classified as benign, 3 were atypical/reactive and 13 suspicious for malignancy with 20 »false-negative« cases. When specimens with atypical and suspicious cytology were excluded from data analysis sensitivity was 64% and specificity was 100% and when suspicious findings were taken into account as true positives sensitivity rose to 71%. We find that biliary brush cytology, although mainly depending on the skill of endoscopist, as well as the experience of the cytologist, is a valuable method for obtaining accurate tissue diagnosis of biliary strictures, thus solving eternal diagnostic dilemma: benign or malignant

    Assessing the see-and-treat approach for the management of high-grade squamous intraepithelial cervical lesions

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    Objectives: To assess local histological outcomes in patients with HSIL cytology results on cervical smears, in both the see-and-treat and three-step approach. Study Design: A retrospective analysis of patients with HSIL on cervical cytology was performed, obtaining an 83 patient cohort. The histological result following the primary investigation (colposcopic-directed biopsy or excisional procedure) was noted for each patient together with their demographic variables and HPV status. Results: Of 83 patients with HSIL cytology on cervical smear, 43 underwent LLETZ as a primary procedure, while 40 patients underwent a colposcopic-directed biopsy. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of dermographics and HPV status between the two groups. In those patients who had LLETZ as a primary procedure, 29 had CIN2+ on histology. On the other hand, following colposcopic-directed biopsies, 17 resulted in CIN2+ on histology. Conclusion: The conventional approach within our local setting potentially has inferior sensitivity in picking up CIN2+ lesions when compared to the see-and-treat approach. On the other hand, primary excisional procedures were associated with an overtreatment rate of at least 20.9%, subjecting patients to unnecessary risks. Local improvement of colposcopic skill will aid to reduce this overtreatment rate and missed lesions at biopsy.peer-reviewe

    New strategies for human papillomavirus-based cervical screening.

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    Author manuscript; published in final edited form as: Womens Health (Lond Engl). 2013 September; 9(5):. doi:10.2217/whe.13.48Human papillomavirus testing has been shown to be far more sensitive and robust in detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 and above (and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 and above) for cervical screening than approaches based on either cytology or visual inspection; however, there are a number of issues that need to be overcome if it is to substantially reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with cervical cancer at the population level. The two main issues are coverage (increasing the number of women who participate in screening) and the management of women who test positive for high-risk human papillomavirus. This article will review the potential for vaginal self-collection to improve coverage and the options for triage of high-risk human papillomavirus-positive women in high-resource and low-resource settings

    Psychosocial impact of alternative management policies for low-grade cervical abnormalities : results from the TOMBOLA randomised controlled trial

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    Background: Large numbers of women who participate in cervical screening require follow-up for minor cytological abnormalities. Little is known about the psychological consequences of alternative management policies for these women. We compared, over 30-months, psychosocial outcomes of two policies: cytological surveillance (repeat cervical cytology tests in primary care) and a hospital-based colposcopy examination. Methods: Women attending for a routine cytology test within the UK NHS Cervical Screening Programmes were eligible to participate. 3399 women, aged 20–59 years, with low-grade abnormal cytology, were randomised to cytological surveillance (six-monthly tests; n = 1703) or initial colposcopy with biopsies and/or subsequent treatment based on colposcopic and histological findings (n = 1696). At 12, 18, 24 and 30-months post-recruitment, women completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). A subgroup (n = 2354) completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES) six weeks after the colposcopy episode or first surveillance cytology test. Primary outcomes were percentages over the entire follow-up period of significant depression (≥8) and significant anxiety (≥11; “30-month percentages”). Secondary outcomes were point prevalences of significant depression, significant anxiety and procedure-related distress (≥9). Outcomes were compared between arms by calculating fully-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for initial colposcopy versus cytological surveillance. Results: There was no significant difference in 30-month percentages of significant depression (OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.80–1.21) or anxiety (OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.81–1.16) between arms. At the six-week assessment, anxiety and distress, but not depression, were significantly less common in the initial colposcopy arm (anxiety: 7.9% vs 13.4%; OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.38–0.81; distress: 30.6% vs 39.3%, OR = 0.67 95% CI 0.54–0.84). Neither anxiety nor depression differed between arms at subsequent time-points. Conclusions: There was no difference in the longer-term psychosocial impact of management policies based on cytological surveillance or initial colposcopy. Policy-makers, clinicians, and women themselves can be reassured that neither management policy has a significantly greater psychosocial cost