825 research outputs found

    Présence de Cuon alpinus europaeus BOURGUIGNAT, 1868 (Mammalia, Carnivora) dans le Pléistocène du Portugal

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    Estuda-se um fragmento mandibular de cuon, plistoc√©nico (Cuon alpinus europaeus BOURGUIGNAT, 1868), recolhido na gruta do Escoural. Trata-se da primeira ocorr√™ncia desta esp√©cie em Portugal.Dans cet article nous √©tudions un fragment mandibulaire de cuon (Cuon alpinus europaeus BOURGUIGNAT,1868), esp√®ce signal√©e pour la premi√®re fois dans le Pl√©istoc√®ne du Portugal. La pi√®ce a √©t√© recueillie dans la gruta de Escoural. L'√Ęge pr√©cis reste indetermin√©.A fragment of the lower jaw of cuon (Cuon alpinus europaeus BOURGUIGNAT, 1868) found at gruta do Escoural is studied. It is the first occurrence recorded for the Pleistocene of Portugal

    Photographic evidence of dholes in Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park, Indonesia.

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    For many years the dhole was believed to have been undetected in Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park (GGPNP). Nevertheless, in 2012 and 2013, we were able to photograph this elusive creature. We report the photographic evidence of the endangered dhole (Cuon alpinus) using camera trap di GGPNP.

    Cuon alpinus (Pallas, 1811) from the Late Pleistocene site of Ingarano (Foggia, southern Italy) and insights on the Eurasian Middle to Late Pleistocene record

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    In this study, we report for the first time the presence of Cuon alpinus from the Late Pleistocene site of Ingarano (Foggia, southern Italy), represented by an right upper first molar. Considering the intricate and debated taxonomy of fossil dholes, our comparative analyses on dental samples (P4, M1, and M1) of the extant and Middle to Late Pleistocene dholes from Europe, has been performed evidencing a relevant degree of morphological variability and a biometric uniformity of the considered teeth. Our results indicate the lack of clear morphological and biometric features for a reliable teeth-based classification of fossil dholes, questioning the validity of the fossil taxa currently proposed in the literature. Finally, to avoid the propagatio

    Abundance estimation from multiple data types for groupliving animals: An example using dhole (Cuon alpinus)

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    Large carnivores are declining globally and require baseline population estimates for management, however large-scale population estimation is problematic for species without unique natural marks. We used camera trap records of dhole Cuon alpinus, a group-living species, from three national parks in Thailand as a case study in which we develop integrated likelihood models to estimate abundance incorporating two different data sets, count data and detection/non-detection data. We further investigated relative biases of the models using different proportions of data with lower versus higher quality and assessed parameter identifiability. The simulations indicated that the relative bias on average across 24 tested scenarios was 2% with a 95% chance that the simulated data sets obtained the true animal abundances. We found that bias was high (\u3e10%) when sampling 60 sites with only 5 sampling occasions. We tested four additional scenarios with varying proportions of count data. Our model tolerated the use of relatively low proportions of the higher quality count data, but below 10% the results began to show bias (\u3e6%). Data cloning indicated that the parameters were identifiable with all posterior variances shrinking to near zero. Our model demonstrates the benefits of combining data from multiple studies even with different data types. Furthermore, the approach is not limited to camera trap data. Detection/non-detection data from track surveys or counts from transects could also be combined. Particularly, our model is potentially useful for assessing populations of rare species where large amounts of by-catch datasets are available

    Evidences of Interaction Homo-Cuon in three Upper Pleistocene Sites of the Iberian Mediterranean Central Region

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    Several cuon bones were discovered recently in three Upper Pleistocene archeological sites in the central area of the Iberian Mediterranean. This has proved that there were different types of interactions between dholes and prehistoric human groups. Firstly, evidence found in the archeological sites of Cova Negra and Coves de Santa Maira shows the use of carcasses of dholes by human hunter-gatherers. Secondly, the dhole remains recovered in Cova del Parpalló shows the dholes and humans could occupy the same habitat. In this case, the dhole died by natural causes in a small and isolated gallery before the human groups occupied the cave during the gravettian period. Associated with the dhole bones, there were also many ungulate mammal remains found. Some of these bones shows carnivore tooth marks. Due to these findings, we can presume that the dhole might have been the predator responsible for the bones discovered within the chamber. With the data provided we can come to the conclusion that this species had a more prominent role than we originally thought

    A multi-proxy approach to exploring Homo sapiens’ arrival, environments and adaptations in Southeast Asia

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    The capability of Pleistocene hominins to successfully adapt to different types of tropical forested environments has long been debated. In order to investigate environmental changes in Southeast Asia during a critical period for the turnover of hominin species, we analysed palaeoenvironmental proxies from five late Middle to Late Pleistocene faunas. Human teeth discoveries have been reported at Duoi U‚ÄôOi, Vietnam (70‚Äď60¬†ka) and Nam Lot, Laos (86‚Äď72¬†ka). However, the use of palaeoproteomics allowed us to discard the latter, and, to date, no human remains older than‚ÄČ~‚ÄČ70¬†ka are documented in the area. Our findings indicate that tropical rainforests were highly sensitive to climatic changes over that period, with significant fluctuations of the canopy forests. Locally, large-bodied faunas were resilient to these fluctuations until the cooling period of the Marine Isotope Stage 4 (MIS 4; 74‚Äď59¬†ka) that transformed the overall biotope. Then, under strong selective pressures, populations with new phenotypic characteristics emerged while some other species disappeared. We argue that this climate-driven shift offered new foraging opportunities for hominins in a novel rainforest environment and was most likely a key factor in the settlement and dispersal of our species during MIS 4 in SE Asia

    On a Dhole trail: examining ecological and anthropogenic correlates of Dhole habitat occupancy in the Western Ghats of India

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    Although they play a critical role in shaping ecological communities, many threatened predator species are data-deficient. The Dhole Cuon alpinus is one such rare canid with a global population thought to be < 2500 wild individuals. We assessed habitat occupancy patterns of dholes in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India, to understand ecological and anthropogenic determinants of their distribution and habitat-use. We conducted spatially replicated detection/non-detection surveys of dhole signs along forest trails at two appropriate scales: the entire landscape and a single wildlife reserve. Landscape-scale habitat occupancy was assessed across 38,728 km2 surveying 206 grid cells of 188-km2 each. Finer scale habitat-use within 935 km2 Bandipur Reserve was studied surveying 92 grid cells of 13-km2 km each. We analyzed the resulting data of dhole signs using likelihood-based habitat occupancy models. The models explicitly addressed the problematic issue of imperfect detection of dhole signs during field surveys as well as potential spatial auto-correlation between sign detections made on adjacent trail segments. We show that traditional ‚Äėpresence versus absence‚Äô analyses underestimated dhole habitat occupancy by 60% or 8682 km2 [na√Įve‚Ää =‚Ää 0.27; ≏ ψL (SE)‚Ää=‚Ää 0.68 (0.08)] in the landscape. Addressing imperfect sign detections by estimating detection probabilities [ˆpt(L) (SE)‚Ää =‚Ää 0.12 (0.11)] was critical for reliable estimation. Similar underestimation occurred while estimating habitat-use probability at reserve-scale [na√Įve‚Ää =‚Ää 0.39; ˆψs (SE)‚Ää= ‚Ää0.71 (0.06)]. At landscape scale, relative abundance of principal ungulate prey primarily influenced dhole habitat occupancy. Habitat-use within a reserve, however, was predominantly and negatively influenced by anthropogenic disturbance. Our results are the first rigorous assessment of dhole occupancy at multiple spatial scales with potential conservation value. The approach used in this study has potential utility for cost-effectively assessing spatial distribution and habitat-use in other species, landscapes and reserves

    Where will the dhole survive in 2030? Predicted strongholds in mainland Southeast Asia

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    Dhole (Cuon alpinus) is threatened with extinction across its range due to habitat loss and prey depletion. Despite this, no previous study has investigated the distribution and threat of the species at a regional scale. This lack of knowledge continues to impede conservation planning for the species. Here we modeled suitable habitat using presence-only camera trap data for dhole and dhole prey species in mainland Southeast Asia and assessed the threat level to dhole in this region using an expert-informed Bayesian Belief Network. We integrated prior information to identify dhole habitat strongholds that could support populations over the next 50 years. Our habitat suitability model identified forest cover and prey availability as the most influential factors affecting dhole occurrence. Similarly, our threat model predicted that forest loss and prey depletion were the greatest threats, followed by local hunting, non-timber forest product collection, and domestic dog incursion into the forest. These threats require proactive resource management, strong legal protection, and cross-sector collaboration. We predicted <20% of all remaining forest cover in our study area to be suitable for dhole. We then identified 17 patches of suitable forest area as potential strongholds. Among these patches, Western Forest Complex (Thailand) was identified as the region's only primary stronghold, while Taman Negara (Malaysia), and northeastern landscape (Cambodia) were identified as secondary strongholds. Although all 17 patches met our minimum size criteria (1667 km(2)), patches smaller than 3333 km(2) may require site management either by increasing the ecological carrying capacity (i.e., prey abundance) or maintaining forest extent. Our proposed interventions for dhole would also strengthen the conservation of other co-occurring species facing similar threats. Our threat assessment technique of species with scarce information is likely replicable with other endangered species

    Caza y alimentación procedente de macromamíferos durante el paleolítico de Amalda

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    Análisis y estudio de los macromamíferos encontrados en los niveles paleolíticos (del VII al IV inclusive) de la cueva de Amalda. En cada uno de ellos se realiza una visión general de los restos y se presta especial atención a los ungulados, a la carne que suministran, a las partes del esqueleto halladas, a la edad y sexo de los animales cazados, etc. Igualmente se analizan otros aspectos como el problema del índice de carnivorismo y la posible participación de los carnívoros en la formación del tafonema de Amalda.Amalda kobazuloko Paleolitoko mailatan (VII. eta IV. mailak barne) aurkitutako makrougaztunen azterketa eta ikerketa. Maila bakoitzean aztarnen ikuspegi orokorra gauzatzen da eta arreta berezia jarriz apo-formako ugaztunei, ematen duten haragiari, aurkitutako hezurdura zatiei, ehizatutako animalien adinari eta sexuari eta abarrei. Era berean, haragijale-indizearen arazoa eta Amaldako tafonemaren sorkuntzan haragijaleek eduki zezaketen parte-hartzea aztertzen da, besteak beste
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