105 research outputs found

    CORDIC Based Array Architecture for Affine Transformation of Images

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    In this paper a multiplierless array architecture of Affine transformation is proposed. The array architecture utilizes CoOrdinate Rotation DIgital Computer (CORDIC) arithmetic unit as the basic Processing Element (PE). To construct the architecture two types of CORDIC units viz. the circular and linear are used. The architecture is flexible and can be configured according to the specification of the user. Due to its multiplierless organization the array architecture is expected to consume less silicon area and power compared to that of the multiplier-based designs

    Implementation of the Trigonometric LMS Algorithm using Original Cordic Rotation

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    The LMS algorithm is one of the most successful adaptive filtering algorithms. It uses the instantaneous value of the square of the error signal as an estimate of the mean-square error (MSE). The LMS algorithm changes (adapts) the filter tap weights so that the error signal is minimized in the mean square sense. In Trigonometric LMS (TLMS) and Hyperbolic LMS (HLMS), two new versions of LMS algorithms, same formulations are performed as in the LMS algorithm with the exception that filter tap weights are now expressed using trigonometric and hyperbolic formulations, in cases for TLMS and HLMS respectively. Hence appears the CORDIC algorithm as it can efficiently perform trigonometric, hyperbolic, linear and logarithmic functions. While hardware-efficient algorithms often exist, the dominance of the software systems has kept those algorithms out of the spotlight. Among these hardware- efficient algorithms, CORDIC is an iterative solution for trigonometric and other transcendental functions. Former researches worked on CORDIC algorithm to observe the convergence behavior of Trigonometric LMS (TLMS) algorithm and obtained a satisfactory result in the context of convergence performance of TLMS algorithm. But revious researches directly used the CORDIC block output in their simulation ignoring the internal step-by-step rotations of the CORDIC processor. This gives rise to a need for verification of the convergence performance of the TLMS algorithm to investigate if it actually performs satisfactorily if implemented with step-by-step CORDIC rotation. This research work has done this job. It focuses on the internal operations of the CORDIC hardware, implements the Trigonometric LMS (TLMS) and Hyperbolic LMS (HLMS) algorithms using actual CORDIC rotations. The obtained simulation results are highly satisfactory and also it shows that convergence behavior of HLMS is much better than TLMS.Comment: 12 pages, 5 figures, 1 table. Published in IJCNC; http://airccse.org/journal/cnc/0710ijcnc08.pdf, http://airccse.org/journal/ijc2010.htm

    Phase Estimation for Grid Synchronization of DG System Using Cordic Algorithm

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    The proper operation of grid connected inverter system is determined by grid voltage conditions such as phase, amplitude and frequency. In such applications, an accurate and fast detection of the phase angle, amplitude and frequency of the grid voltage is essential for reference current generation. Phase angle plays an important role in control being used to transform the feedback variables to a suitable reference frame in which the control structure is implemented. Hence grid synchronization has a significant role in the control of grid connected inverter system. However, accurate on-line tracking of phase angle of the grid voltages under distorted grid condition is critical especially; during line notching, voltage unbalance, voltage dips, frequency variations etc. This project work involves development of phase estimation technique for grid synchronization using CORDIC algorithm during unbalanced three-phase grid voltage conditions. By proposing CORDIC algorithm, we can largely reduce the computational time while it will be implemented in real time platform using FPGA or DSP. Computer simulations have been carried out using MATLAB-Simulink package for feasibility of the study

    A VLSI Array Architecture for Hough Transform

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    In this article, an asynchronous array architecture for straight line Hough Transform (HT) is proposed using a scaling free modified CORDIC (Co-Ordinate Rotation Digital Computer) unit as a basic Processing Element (PE). It exhibits four-fold angle parallelism by dividing the Hough space into four subspaces to reduce the computation burden to 25 % of the conventional requirements. A distributed accumulator arrangement scheme is adopted to ensure conflict free voting operation. The architecture is then extended to compute circular and elliptic HT given their centers and orientations. Compared to some other existing architectures, this one exhibits higher computation speed

    A VLSI Array Architecture for Realization of DFT, DHT, DCT and DST

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    A unified array architecture is described for computation of DFT, DHT, DCT and DST using a modified CORDIC (CoOrdinate Rotation DIgital Computer) arithmetic unit as the basic Processing Element (PE). All these four transforms can be computed by simple rearrangement of input samples. Compared to five other existing architectures, this one has the advantage in speed in terms of latency and throughput. Moreover, the simple local neighborhood interprocessor connections make it convenient for VLSI implementation. The architecture can be extended to compute transformation of longer length by judicially cascading the modules of shorter transformation length which will be suitable for Wafer Scale Integration (WSI). CORDIC is designed using Transmission Gate Logic (TGL) on sea of gates semicustom environment. Simulation results show that this architecture may be a suitable candidate for low power/low voltage applications

    On the hardware reduction of z-datapath of vectoring CORDIC

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    In this article we present a novel design of a hardware optimal vectoring CORDIC processor. We present a mathematical theory to show that using bipolar binary notation it is possible to eliminate all the arithmetic computations required along the z-datapath. Using this technique it is possible to achieve three and 1.5 times reduction in the number of registers and adder respectively compared to conventional CORDIC. Following this, a 16-bit vectoring CORDIC is designed for the application in Synchronizer for IEEE 802.11a standard. The total area and dynamic power consumption of the processor is 0.14 mm2 and 700?W respectively when synthesized in 0.18?m CMOS library which shows its effectiveness as a low-area low-power processor

    Parametrizable Architecture for Function Recursive Evaluation

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    Paper submitted to the XVIII Conference on Design of Circuits and Integrated Systems (DCIS), Ciudad Real, España, 2003.This paper presents a function evaluation method developed under the scope of recursive expression of function convolution. This approach is based on a unique parametrizable formula capable of providing function points by successive iteration. When tackling design level, it also shows suitable for developing architectural schemes capable of dealing with different speed and precision issues. An architecture for reconfigurable FPGA based in serial distributed arithmetic implements the design for fast prototyping. The case of combined trigonometric functions involved in rotation is analyzed under this scope. Compared with others methods, our proposal offers a good balance between speed and precision

    A review of parallel processing approaches to robot kinematics and Jacobian

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    Due to continuously increasing demands in the area of advanced robot control, it became necessary to speed up the computation. One way to reduce the computation time is to distribute the computation onto several processing units. In this survey we present different approaches to parallel computation of robot kinematics and Jacobian. Thereby, we discuss both the forward and the reverse problem. We introduce a classification scheme and classify the references by this scheme

    New virtually scaling free adaptive CORDIC rotator

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    In this article we propose a novel CORDIC rotator algorithm that eliminates the problems of scale factor compensation and limited range of convergence associated with the classical CORDIC algorithm. In our scheme, depending on the target angle or the initial coordinate of the vector, a scaling by 1 or 1/?2 is needed that can be realised with minimal hardware. The proposed CORDIC rotator adaptively selects appropriate iteration steps and converges to the final result by executing 50% less number of iterations on an average compared to that required for the classical CORDIC. Unlike classical CORDIC, the final value of the scale factor is completely independent of number of executed iterations. Based on the proposed algorithm, a 16-bit pipelined CORDIC rotator implementation has been described. The silicon area of the fabricated pipelined CORDIC rotator core is 2.73 mm2. This is equivalent to 38 k inverter gates in IHP in-house 0.25 ?m BiCMOS technology. The average dynamic power consumption of the fabricated CORDIC rotator is 17 mW @ 2.5 V supply and 20Msps throughput. Currently, this CORDIC rotator is used as a part of the baseband processor for a project that aims to design a single-chip wireless modem compliant with IEEE 802.11a and Hiperlan/2