3,345 research outputs found

    A new gorgonian genus from deep-sea Antarctic waters (Octocorallia, Alcyonacea, Plexauridae)

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    Mesogligorgia scotiae gen. nov., sp. nov. is described and illustrated from a colony collected in the Scotia Sea, 2,201–2,213 m in depth, on the ANDEEP-I cruise. The new taxon is placed in the family Plexauridae because of: 1) the presence of a horny axis with a crosschambered central core and numerous loculi, 2) retractile polyps in calyces with distinct spicular components, and 3) armed polyps with large sclerites with a poorlydeveloped collaret and eight well-developed points. The irregularly distributed sclerites running along the axis, into a thick mesogloeal coenenchyme, and the elongated spindles with irregular ends are the most distinctive characters of the newly proposed genus

    Integration of Morphological Data into Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis: Toward the Identikit of the Stylasterid Ancestor

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    Stylasteridae is a hydroid family including 29 worldwide-distributed genera, all provided with a calcareous skeleton. They are abundant in shallow and deep waters and represent an important component of marine communities. In the present paper, we studied the evolution of ten morphological characters, currently used in stylasterid taxonomy, using a phylogenetic approach. Our results indicate that stylasterid morphology is highly plastic and that many events of independent evolution and reversion have occurred. Our analysis also allows sketching a possible identikit of the stylasterid ancestor. It had calcareous skeleton, reticulate-granular coenosteal texture, polyps randomly arranged, gastrostyle, and dactylopore spines, while lacking a gastropore lip and dactylostyles. If the ancestor had single or double/multiple chambered gastropore tube is uncertain. These data suggest that the ancestor was similar to the extant genera Cyclohelia and Stellapora. Our investigation is the first attempt to integrate molecular and morphological information to clarify the stylasterid evolutionary scenario and represents the first step to infer the stylasterid ancestor morphology. \ua9 2016 Puce et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

    Two new species of Antarctic gorgonians (Octocorallia: Primnoidae) with a redescription of Thouarella laxa Versluys, 1906

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    Two new species of the genus Thouarella from Antarctic waters are described and illustrated from material collected on the Polarstern cruises ANT XVII/3 (EASIZ III), ANT XIX/5 (LAMPOS) and ANT XXI/2 (BENDEX). On the one hand, Thouarella viridis sp. nov. is placed in the subgenus Epithouarella due to the characteristic ornamentation of its marginal scales (the previously most recent species in this group was included by Ku¨kenthal in Zool Anz 33(1): 9–20, 1908). On the other hand, Thouarella minuta sp. nov. is included in subgenus Thouarella among the 14 species currently recognised, the main distinct feature being tiny polyps. Furthermore, a complete redescription is given of Thouarella laxa Versluys, 1906. Using the new technology available nowadays, such as images obtained with SEM, we provide accurate images of the polyps and sclerites. In addition, as a result of this study, T. laxa and its closest congener T. tydemani Versluys, 1906 are maintained as separate species, mainly due to their internal sculpture of body and coenenchymal scales

    Net phytoplankton and zooplankton in the New York Bight, January 1976 to February 1978, with comments on the effects of wind, Gulf Stream eddies, and slope water intrusions

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    Results are given of monthly net phytoplankton and zooplankton sampling from a 10 m depth in shelf, slope, and Gulf Stream eddy water along a transect running southeastward from Ambrose Light, New York, in 1976, 1977, and early 1978. Plankton abundance and temperature at 10 m and sea surface salinity at each station are listed. The effects of atmospheric forcing and Gulf Stream eddies on plankton distribution and abundance arc discussed. The frequency of Gulf Stream eddy passage through the New York Bight corresponded with the frequency of tropical-subtropical net phytoplankton in the samples. Gulf Stream eddies injected tropical-subtropical zooplankton onto the shelf and removed shelfwater and its entrained zooplankton. Wind-induced offshore Ekman transport corresponded generally with the unusual timing of two net phytoplankton maxima. Midsummer net phytoplankton maxima were recorded following the passage of Hurricane Belle (August 1976) and a cold front (July 1977). Tropical-subtropical zooplankton which had been injected onto the outer shelf by Gulf Stream eddies were moved to the inner shelf by a wind-induced current moving up the Hudson Shelf Valley. (PDF file contains 47 pages.

    A new species of Hormathia (Actiniaria, Hormathiidae) from the eastern Weddell Sea, Antarctica

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    A new species of sea anemone in the genus Hormathia, is described and illustrated based on fortytwo specimens collected during the Polarstern cruises ANT XV/3 and ANT XVII/3 in the Weddell Sea. The main features of the new taxon are the crown of flattened and hooked tubercles at the distal end of the scapus, the regular arrangement of pointed tubercles along the column and the cnidom. The new species shares the pointed tubercles, at least in the upper part of the scapus, with two other species of Hormathia in the southern hemisphere: Hormathia spinosa Hertwig 1882 and H. pectinata Hertwig 188

    Stephanthus antarcticus, a new genus and species of sea anemone (Actiniaria, Haloclavidae) from the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

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    Stephanthus antarcticus gen. nov. et sp. nov. is described and illustrated from six specimens collected in the Antarctic Peninsula on the Polarstern cruises ANT XV/3 and ANT XIX/3. The new genus is characterised by the absence of sphincter and basilar musculature, the presence of a single strong siphonoglyph with a basal enlargement, distinct parietobasilar musculature, tentacles without acrospheres, two cycles of six pairs of mesenteries (only one of them perfect), and a deep fosse with parapet; another remarkable feature is the absence of microbasic p-mastigophores. The new genus shows characteristics of three families of soft-bottomdwelling sea anemones, namely Haloclavidae Verrill, 1899, Halcampoididae Appellöf, 1896, and Andresiidae Stephenson, 1922. The generic characters of Stephanthus gen. nov. are discussed and it is tentatively placed in the family Haloclavidae

    Dendrogramma, new Genus, with two new non- bilaterian species from the Marine Bathyal of Southeastern Australia (Animalia, Metazoa incertae sedis) – with similarities to some medusoids from the precambrian ediacara

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    This study examines a new species of dinosaur named Dendrogramma, which has been found near Bass Strait. Abstract A new genus, Dendrogramma, with two new species of multicellular, non-bilaterian, mesogleal animals with some bilateral aspects, D. enigmatica and D. discoides, are described from the south-east Australian bathyal (400 and 1000 metres depth). A new family, Dendrogrammatidae, is established for Dendrogramma. These mushroom-shaped organisms cannot be referred to either of the two phyla Ctenophora or Cnidaria at present, because they lack any specialised characters of these taxa. Resolving the phylogenetic position of Dendrogramma depends much on how the basal metazoan lineages (Ctenophora, Porifera, Placozoa, Cnidaria, and Bilateria) are related to each other, a question still under debate. At least Dendrogramma must have branched off before Bilateria and is possibly related to Ctenophora and/or Cnidaria. Dendrogramma, therefore, is referred to Metazoa incertae sedis. The specimens were fixed in neutral formaldehyde and stored in 80% ethanol and are not suitable for molecular analysis. We recommend, therefore, that attempts be made to secure new material for further study. Finally similarities between Dendrogramma and a group of Ediacaran (Vendian) medusoids are discussed

    The gastropod-symbiotic sea anemone genus Isosicyonis Carlgren, 1927 (Actiniaria : Actiniidae): a new species from the Weddell Sea (Antarctica) that clarifies the taxonomic position of the genus

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    A second species of the sea anemone genus Isosicyonis is described and illustrated from 16 specimens collected in the Weddell Sea (Antarctica) on the Polarstern cruises ANT XVII/3, ANT XXI/2 and ANT XXIII/8. Isosicyonis striata n. sp. is easily distinguishable externally from the other species of the genus Isosicyonis alba by its pattern: white longitudinal stripes on the column, oral disc, and tentacles. It is also distinguished by internal features including the retractor muscles, parietobasilar muscles, marginal sphincter muscles, number of mesenteries, and cnidae. The genus Isosycionis is currently only known from the Southern Ocean. Both species of Isosicyonis live in association with a gastropod, with a single sea anemone occupying almost the whole shell of its gastropod host. The description of this new species, and our re-examination of Isosicyonis alba, resolves the controversial higher taxonomic position of the genus, confirming its placement within the Endomyaria
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