47,625 research outputs found

    Exogenous S100A4 Protein Attenuates Bleomycin-induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Mice by Reducing the Levels of Fibroblast Growth Factors

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    Background and objective:The calcium-binding protein S100A4 belongs to the S100 family and is involved in fibrotic and inflammatory processes, in which tissue remodeling, cell motility, and epithelialmesenchymal transition play major roles. Cytoplasmic S100A4 is a marker of lung fibroblasts in pulmonary fibrosis;however, the effects of exogenous S100A4 on fibrotic and inflammatory processes in pulmonary fibrosis are unclear. This study examined the effects of exogenous S100A4 protein in mice with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.Methods:Bleomycin was administered to mice by intratracheal instillation on day 1. Intratracheal S100A4 protein was administered 4 times after bleomycin treatment. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was obtained and lung histological examinations were performed on day 14 after bleomycin administration. Lung tissue was homogenized on the same day to assess the mRNA expression of cytokines, fibroblast growth factors, and S100A4.Results:Unexpectedly, we observed that the administration of exogenous S100A4 protein apparently reduced lung fibrosis in bleomycin-treated mice. In addition, the levels of lymphocyte accumulation and insulin-like growth factor-1 mRNA were significantly reduced in bleomycin-treated lung by S100A4 administration.Conclusions:Exogenous S100A4 protein attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice by reducing lymphocyte function and the levels of fibroblast growth factors

    Involvement of Bird-related IgG Antibodies in Interstitial Pneumonia

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    Background and Objective:Chronic interstitial pneumonia (IP) might include chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) and chronic bird-related hypersensitivity pneumonitis (BRHP). A specific antigen is difficult to identify in these diseases, and such evidence would provide important clues suggesting a diagnosis of HP. In this study, we used an ImmunoCAP analysis system to measure specific IgG antibodies against pigeons and budgerigars in the sera of patients with IP and investigated the involvement of bird-related IgG antibodies in IP.Methods:The study group comprised 22 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), 8 with chronic IP, 7 with subacute HP, 7 with chronic HP, and 10 with control diseases. All cases were diagnosed from 2000 through 2011 at the Institute of Pulmonary Medicine and Clinical Immunology, Dokkyo Medical University. Clinical features, results of laboratory examinations, and levels of serum IgG antibodies against pigeons and budgerigars were compared.Results:There were no significant differences among the disease groups in C-reactive protein, leukocyte count, lactate dehydrogenase, and the results of blood gas analysis. KL-6 and surfactant protein D were significantly higher in subacute HP and chronic HP. The levels of anti-pigeon IgG antibodies and anti-budgerigar IgG antibodies in each disease group were respectively as follows:IPF, 11.02┬▒5.97&#8200;mg/l, 5.03┬▒3.97&#8200;mg/l;chronic IP, 10.04┬▒8.55&#8200;mg/l, 3.30┬▒1.47&#8200;mg/l;subacute HP, 14.39┬▒9.13&#8200;mg/l, 7.96┬▒6.47&#8200;mg/l;chronic HP, 24.97┬▒16.19&#8200;mg/l, 11.50┬▒13.80&#8200;mg/l;and control diseases, 8.66┬▒3.15&#8200;mg/l, 3.77┬▒1.05&#8200;mg/l. The mean levels of anti-pigeon IgG antibodies and anti-budgerigar IgG antibodies were significantly higher in chronic HP. There was a positive correlation between anti-pigeon IgG antibodies and anti-budgerigar IgG antibodies (R2 = 0.715, p<0.001). Conclusions:In patients with clinically diagnosed chronic HP, high levels of anti-pigeon IgG antibodies or anti-budgerigar IgG antibodies were confirmed using an ImmunoCAP analysis system. In general, HP (especially chronic HP) is difficult to diagnose definitively, and this analysis system is expected to facilitate diagnosis

    Effect of Oral Procaterol in Combination with Inhaled Corticosteroids in Adult Patients with Bronchial Asthma

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    Background:Bronchial asthma is considered to be a chronic airway inflammatory disease, and inhaledcorticosteroids play a central role in controlling airway inflammation. In some patients, however, it is difficultto control symptoms despite the use of moderate to high doses of inhaled corticosteroids. Long-actinginhaled b2-agonists have recently become available and reconsidered as a controller.Objectives:To examine whether combination of an inhaled corticosteroid and an oral b2-agonist can improvesymptoms in patients with moderate bronchial asthma whose airway obstructive symptoms cannotbe relieved sufficiently by inhaled corticosteroids alone.Methods:Of outpatients in our hospital with moderate bronchial asthma (step 3) given beclomethasoneat a daily dose of 800 mg, whose peak expiratory flow rate in the early morning was 70 % or less of the predictedvalue, 12 patients were enrolled in the study who showed at least 12.5 % improvement in the forcedexpiratory volume in one second (FEV1.0) after inhalation of 20 mg procaterol (Meptin Air from OtsukaPharma. Co.) for 15 minutes. Procaterol tablets (Meptin tablets, 50 mg from Otsuka Pharma. Co.) were administeredin the morning and before bed for 4 weeks, and change in the peak expiratory flow rate, subjectivesymptoms, respiratory function, and the number of puffs of the b2-agonist were evaluated.Results:The peak expiratory flow rate, FEV1.0, forced vital capacity (% FVC),and airway hyperresponsivenessimproved after coadministration of oral procaterol and beclomethasone.Conclusions:The oral b2-agonist in combination with an inhaled corticosteroid might improve asthmasymptoms better than inhaled corticosteroids alone

    IL-33 and RANTES( Regulated on Activation, Normal T Cell Expressed and Secreted) in BAL Fluid in Asthma Patients Without Cigarette Smoking

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    Background:Inflammatory cytokines and chemokines have been reported to play important roles in thepathogenesis of bronchial asthma. However, no criteria for the classification of `smoker\u27 and `atopic\u27 in bronchialasthma have been defined. In this study, we compared the levels of several cytokines found in thebronchoalveolar lavage( BAL) fluid of patients classified as having bronchial asthma.Methods:Cell subpopulations in BAL fluid were counted. BAL fluid levels of interleukin( IL)-4, -5, -13,-17, and -33 and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted were measuredusing a bead suspension array in 36 asthma patients (13 males, 23 females;mean age, 39.5┬▒92.8 years)who were non-smokers, 18 asthma patients( 11 males, 7 females;mean age, 30.7┬▒2.7 years) who were exor current smokers( Brinkman index( BI):1&#8722;399), and 10 asthma patients( 9 males, 1 female;mean age,50.2┬▒5.5 years) who were current heavy smokers( BI:&#8805; 400). Relationships were assessed by Spearman\u27srank correlation analysis.Results:The number of lymphocytes in BAL cell subpopulations of non-smokers( 25┬▒7├Ś103/ml) weresignificantly (p<0.05) higher than those of heavy smokers (12┬▒3├Ś103 /ml). The number of neutrophilswas significantly( p<0.05) higher in heavy smokers( 18┬▒9├Ś103/ml) than in non-smokers( 4┬▒2├Ś103/ml).Levels of IL-33 and RANTES were significantly (P<0.05) higher in non-smokers (26.1┬▒7.3 pg/ml and42.8┬▒10.3 pg/ml, respectively) than in heavy smokers (13.7┬▒4.5 pg/ml and 27.4┬▒5.4 pg/ml, respectively).In addition, the levels of IL-33 and RANTES in non-smokers were significantly( P<0.05) higher in atopicasthma patients (33.0┬▒9.8 pg/ml and 47.8┬▒14.0 pg/ml, respectively) than in non-atopic asthma patients(9.1┬▒3.8 pg/ml and 29.5┬▒7.8 pg/ml, respectively). A good correlation was noted between RANTES andlymphocytes (R=0.365, P<0.05) or IL-33 (R=0.561, P<0.05) in atopic asthma patients who were nonsmokers.Conclusions:Differences in the cell types of BAL fluid, as well as in the levels of IL-33 and RANTES inasthma patients with or without smoking, might reflect pathogenesis

    Inhibitory Killer Immunoglobulin-like receptors to self HLA-B and HLA-C ligands contribute differentially to Natural Killer cell functional potential in HIV infected Slow Progressors

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    Ce manuscrit est une pr├ę-publication d'un article paru dans Clinical Immunology 2012; 143(3): 246-255 url: http://www.journals.elsevier.com/clinical-immunology/IRSC et FRSQ - R├ęseau SIDA et maladies infectieuse

    Clinical Significance of Propionibacterium acnes in the Formation of Noncaseating Epithelioid-Cell Granulomas of the Mediastinal Lymph Nodes and Lung in Patients with Lung Cancer:Differential Diagnosis Between Sarcoid Reactions and Sarcoidosis

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    Objectives:Sarcoidosis is a systemic noncaseating epithelioid-cell granulomatous disease of unknown origin.Granulomas occurring around malignant tumors and regional lymph nodes can be caused by sarcoid reactions.The mechanisms underlying sarcoidosis and sarcoid reactions remain unclear. Whether increaseduptake of fluorodeoxyglucose( FDG) in lymph nodes on positron emission tomography( PET) is caused bytumor metastasis, the concurrent presence of sarcoidosis, or sarcoid reactions must be determined to ensureproper disease staging and selection of treatment policy. We studied patients who underwent surgery forlung cancer and had no histopathological evidence of lymph-node metastasis in whom concurrent sarcoidosisor sarcoid reactions were diagnosed.Methods:In six patients who underwent surgery for primary lung cancer, granulomatous lesions werehistopathologically studied in dissected lymph nodes and lung. Tissue sections were stained with monoclonalantibodies against Propionibacterium acnes( PAB antibodies).Results:The six patients had noncaseating epithelioid-cell granulomas in mediastinal lymph nodes andlung. Clinically, concurrent sarcoidosis was suspected, but the results of staining the tissue specimens withPAB antibodies( in granulomas, alveolar macrophages, Hamazaki-Wesenberg bodies, and lymphatic sinuses)suggested sarcoid reactions in 5 patients. In one patient in whom granulomas stained positive with PAB antibodies,concurrent sarcoidosis was diagnosed.Conclusions:In patients with lung cancer who have no distinct systemic evidence of sarcoidosis, thepresence of noncaseating epithelioid-cell granulomas in the lung hilum or mediastinum is usually caused bysarcoid reactions

    A Case of Inflammatory Lung Disease and Retroperitoneal Fibrosis Attributed to Systemic IgG4-related Disease

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    Recently, immunoglobulin (Ig) G4-related diseases such as autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), sclerosingsialadenitis, retroperitoneal fibrosis, and sclerosing cholangitis have been reported. IgG4-related diseases arecharacterized by high serum IgG4 concentrations, sclerosing inflammation with numerous IgG4-positiveplasma cells, and steroid sensitivity, irrespective of their organ of origin. We describe a case of inflammatorylung disease and retroperitoneal fibrosis, suggested to involve IgG4. The patient was a 76-year-old man. Acomputed tomographic scan of the chest showed nodular air-space consolidation in the left upper lobe. Theserum IgG4 concentration was abnormally elevated, but there was no evidence of AIP. Bilateral hydronephrosisassociated with thickened soft tissue around the abdominal aorta had been diagnosed previously. Hehad undergone surgery, and retroperitoneal fibrosis was diagnosed histologically (hematoxylin and eosinstain). Histological examination of bronchoscopic specimens taken from the left S3 region showed mononuclear-cell infiltration of the fibrotic bronchial wall, including many IgG4-positive plasma cells. Specimens ofthe region affected by retroperitoneal fibrosis were retrospectively reanalyzed, and the cells were positivefor IgG4 on immunostaining, similar to the lung tissue. The patient responded to treatment with corticosteroids.In conclusion, the present case shared many clinical and clinicopathological similarities with systemicIgG4-related autoimmune disease. To our knowledge, however, this is the first reported case of inflammatorylung disease with retroperitoneal fibrosis in a patient with systemic IgG4-related autoimmune disease
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